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The Depths of the Ocean and the Question of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Them; Les Grandes Fosses Oceaniques et l'Immersion des Dechets Radioactifs dans ces Eaux Profondes; 0413 041b 0423 0414 ; Cuestiones Relacionadas con la Inmersion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Grandes Fosas

Conference:

Abstract

There are 23 deep water troughs with depths of more than 6,000 m in the oceans of the world. None of the troughs has any morphological features which might prevent the free circulation of deep water in them. An increase in water temperature at the bottom of the troughs, beginning at a depth of 3-5 km, results in the vertical convective mixing of deep water. It has been proved theoretically that in spite of the stabilizing effect of the earth's rotation, steady cellular convection will take place in the deep layers even when there are very small superadiabatic temperature gradients. The vertical distribution of oxygen, showing a characteristic increase in percentage saturation and absolute concentration with depth from a minimum level of 1,000 m to the bottom, may be taken as evidence of the existence of both vertical and horizontal movements or horizontal mixing throughout the deep water mass. Otherwise the biochemical consumption of oxygen (not less than 0.1 ml/1 per year) would lead to complete exhaustion of oxygen resources in deep water after a very short time (40-60 years). Horizontal currents with comparatively high velocities (5-17 cm/sec) have been detected at depths of 1,000-3,000 m by direct measurements in  More>>
Authors:
Bogorov, V. G.; Tareev, B. A.; Fedorov, K. N. [1] 
  1. Oceanographical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 1960
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, Monaco (Monaco), 16-21 Nov 1959; Other Information: 17 refs., 3 tabs.; Related Information: In: Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes| 586 p.
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DEPTH; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; FOOD CHAINS; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; PACIFIC OCEAN; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; RADIOECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; RADIOECOLOGY; WATER
OSTI ID:
22192417
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France); Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
Russian
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3541016906
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 199-209
Announcement Date:
Feb 20, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Bogorov, V. G., Tareev, B. A., and Fedorov, K. N. The Depths of the Ocean and the Question of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Them; Les Grandes Fosses Oceaniques et l'Immersion des Dechets Radioactifs dans ces Eaux Profondes; 0413 041b 0423 0414 ; Cuestiones Relacionadas con la Inmersion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Grandes Fosas. IAEA: N. p., 1960. Web.
Bogorov, V. G., Tareev, B. A., & Fedorov, K. N. The Depths of the Ocean and the Question of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Them; Les Grandes Fosses Oceaniques et l'Immersion des Dechets Radioactifs dans ces Eaux Profondes; 0413 041b 0423 0414 ; Cuestiones Relacionadas con la Inmersion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Grandes Fosas. IAEA.
Bogorov, V. G., Tareev, B. A., and Fedorov, K. N. 1960. "The Depths of the Ocean and the Question of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Them; Les Grandes Fosses Oceaniques et l'Immersion des Dechets Radioactifs dans ces Eaux Profondes; 0413 041b 0423 0414 ; Cuestiones Relacionadas con la Inmersion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Grandes Fosas." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22192417,
title = {The Depths of the Ocean and the Question of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Them; Les Grandes Fosses Oceaniques et l'Immersion des Dechets Radioactifs dans ces Eaux Profondes; 0413 041b 0423 0414 ; Cuestiones Relacionadas con la Inmersion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Grandes Fosas}
author = {Bogorov, V. G., Tareev, B. A., and Fedorov, K. N.}
abstractNote = {There are 23 deep water troughs with depths of more than 6,000 m in the oceans of the world. None of the troughs has any morphological features which might prevent the free circulation of deep water in them. An increase in water temperature at the bottom of the troughs, beginning at a depth of 3-5 km, results in the vertical convective mixing of deep water. It has been proved theoretically that in spite of the stabilizing effect of the earth's rotation, steady cellular convection will take place in the deep layers even when there are very small superadiabatic temperature gradients. The vertical distribution of oxygen, showing a characteristic increase in percentage saturation and absolute concentration with depth from a minimum level of 1,000 m to the bottom, may be taken as evidence of the existence of both vertical and horizontal movements or horizontal mixing throughout the deep water mass. Otherwise the biochemical consumption of oxygen (not less than 0.1 ml/1 per year) would lead to complete exhaustion of oxygen resources in deep water after a very short time (40-60 years). Horizontal currents with comparatively high velocities (5-17 cm/sec) have been detected at depths of 1,000-3,000 m by direct measurements in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The physical circulation of water is not the only means by which dissolved and suspended materials are dispersed in the ocean. The continuous migration of living organisms adds to the risk that radioactive materials, which have accumulated in living tissue, will be dispersed and transmitted through the food chain over large distances at great speeds, which was the case after experimental atomic explosions in the Pacific. It must therefore be recognized that radioactive waste disposal in the deep water troughs cannot be permitted without endangering the health of the whole of mankind through radioactive contamination. (author) [French] Les mers du globe comptent 23 fosses d'une profondeur superieure a 6.000 metres. Aucune d'elles ne possede de particularites morphologiques pouvant empecher les eaux profondes d'y penetrer ou de s'ecouler. L'augmentation progressive de la temperature de l'eau a partir de 3.000 a 5.000 metres de profondeur jusqu'au fond de ces fosses provoque des courants verticaux de convexion dans les eaux profondes. Il est theoriquement prouve que malgre l'effet stabilisateur du mouvement de rotation de la terre, il doit exister des courants de convexion alveolaires, meme lorsque les differences de temperature superadiabatiques restent tres petites. La repartition verticale de la teneur en oxygene en fonction de l'augmentation caracteristique du taux de saturation et de concentration en O{sub 2}, qui va en s'accentuant depuis la couche minimum (1.000 metres) jusqu'au fond, permet de presumer l'existence d'un mouvement horizontal et vertical ou bien d'un deplacement horizontal des eaux profondes dans toute leur masse. S'il n'en etait pas ainsi, l'utilisation biochimique de l'oxygene (au moins 0,1 ml par an) entrainerait un epuisement total des reserves de cet element dans les eaux profondes en un laps de temps relativement court (40 a 60 ans). L'existence de courants horizontaux assez rapides (5 a 17 cm/s) a des profondeurs de 1.000 a 3.000 metres a ete demontree par les mesures directes qui ont ete effectuees dans l'Atlantique et le Pacifique. La diffusion des particules dissoutes ou suspendues dans la mer n'est pas uniquement due a la circulation des eaux, au sens physique de ce terme. Le deplacement continu des organismes vivants constitue, en effet, un risque supplementaire de voir les substances radioactives accumulees dans les tissus de ces organismes etre diffusees par ceux-ci ou transmises par les chaines alimentaires a des distances considerables et a une grande vitesse, comme on a pu le constater apres les explosions experimentales qui ont eu lieu dans l'Ocean Pacifique. Il faut donc admettre qu'il est impossible d'immerger des dechets radioactifs dans les fosses oceaniques profondes sans exposer toute la population du globe au danger d'une contamination radioactive. (author) [Spanish] En Jos mares del globo hay 23 fosas de mas de 6,000 metros de profundidad. Ninguna de ellas posee caracteristicas morfologicas que impidan la libre entrada y salida de las aguas profundas. La elevacion progresiva de la temperatura del agua a partir de 3,000-5,000 metros hasta el fondo de las fosas provoca corrientes verticales de conveccion en las aguas profundas. Se ha demostrado teoricamente que, pese al efecto estabilizador de la rotacion terrestre, hay corrientes alveolares de conveccion, aun en el caso de que las diferencias de los valores superadiabaticos de la temperatura sean muy pequenas. La distribucion vertical del contenido de oxigeno en funcion del aumento caracteristico del porcentaje de saturacion y de concentracion de O{sub 2}, que se acentua a partir de la capa superficial (1,000 metros) hasta el fondo, permite conjeturar la existencia de movimientos verticales y horizontales, o bien de un desplazamiento horizontal del conjunto de las aguas profundas. De no ser asi, el consumo bioquimico de oxigeno (no inferior a 0,1 mi anual) agotaria por completo las reservas de este elemento en las aguas profundas en un plazo relativamente breve (de 40 a 60 anos). Mediante mediciones directas se ha comprobado la existencia en el Atlantico y en el Pacifico de corrientes de considerable rapidez (de 5 a 17 cm/seg) a profundidades comprendidas entre 1,000 y 3,000 metros. La difusion de las particulas disueltas o en suspension en el mar no se debe unicamente a la circulacion del agua, en el sentido fisico de este termino. En efecto, el desplazamiento continuo de los organismos vivos entrana tambien el peligro de que las sustancias radiactivas acumuladas en sus tejidos sean difundidas por estos organismos o transmitidas por la cadena alimentaria a grandes distancias y con gran rapidez, como se ha podido comprobar despues de las explosiones experimentales realizadas en el Oceano Pacifico. Por consiguiente, debe admitirse que no se pueden evacuar desechos radiactivos en las fosas oceanicas profundas sin exponer a la poblacion del mundo entero a los peligros de la contaminacion radiactiva. (author) [Russian] V Mirovom okeane imeetsja 23 glubokovodnyh vpadiny s glubinami svyshe 6 km. Ni odna vpadina ne imeet nikakih morfologicheskih osobennostej, kotorye prepjatstvovali by svobodnomu vtekaniju i vytekaniju glubinnyh vod. Povyshenie temperatury vody po napravleniju ko dnu vpadiny, nachinaja s glubiny 3-5 km, javljaetsja prichinoj vertikal'nogo konvektivnogo peremeshivanija glubinnyh vod. Teoreticheski dokazano, chto, nesmotrja na stabilizirujushhij jeffekt vrashhenija zemli, ustojchivaja jacheistaja konvekcija dolzhna sushhestvovat' v glubinnyh slojah dazhe v sluchae ves'ma malyh sverhadiabaticheskih gradientov temperatury. Raspredelenie soderzhanija kisloroda po vertikali s harakternym vozrastaniem procenta nasyshhenija i absoljutnoj koncentracii O{sub 2} s glubinoj ot sloja minimuma (1000 m) do dna pozvoljaet predpolagat' nalichie ne tol'ko vertikal'nyh, no i gorizontal'nyh dvizhenij ili gorizontal'nogo peremeshivanija vo vsej tolshhe glubinnyh vod. V protivnom sluchae biohimicheskoe potreblenie kisloroda (ne menee 0,1 ml/l v god) privelo by k polnomu istoshheniju ego zapasov v glubinnyh vodah v sravnitel'no korotkij srok (40-60 let). Sushhestvovanie znachitel'nyh po skorosti (5-17 sm/sek) gorizontal'nyh techenij na glubinah 1000-3000 m bylo ustanovleno neposredstvennymi izmerenijami v Atlanticheskom i Tihom okeanah. Ne tol'ko cirkuljacija vod v fizicheskom smysle osushhestvljaet perenos rastvo rennyh i vzveshennyh veshhestv v okeane. Nepreryvnoe peremeshhenie zhivyh organizmov sozdaet dopolnitel'nuju ugrozu togo, chto radioaktivnye veshhestva, posle akkumuljacii ih v tkanjah zhivyh organizmov budut razneseny poslednimi i peredany po pishhevym cepjam na bol'shie rasstojanija i s bol'shoj skorost'ju, kak jeto uzhe imelo mesto posle ispytatel'nyh vzryvov v Tihom okeane. Takim obrazom, sleduet priznat', chto nel'zja proizvodit' zahoronenie radioaktivnyh othodov v glubokovodnyh vpadinah mirovogo okeana, ne podvergaja tem samym naselenie vsego zemnogo shara opasnosti radioaktivnogo zarazhenija. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1960}
month = {Jul}
}