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The Origin and Nature of Radioactive Wastes in the United States Atomic Energy Programme; Origine et Nature des Dechets Radioactifs de l'Execution des Programmes d'Energie Atomique aux Etats-Unis; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0421 0425 041e 0416 0414 ; Origen y Naturaleza de los Desechos Radiactivos en el Programa de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos

Conference:

Abstract

The composition of nuclear power wastes is determined, firstly, by the treatment employed for fuel reprocessing, and secondly, by the initial fuel composition. In solvent-extraction processing, wastes of high, intermediate and low activity are produced in approximate volumetric ratios of one, five and 100, respectively. The wastes resulting from reprocessing of highly enriched fuels are large in volume because they contain the fuel diluent. Low-enrichment fuels usually consist of a uranium core clad with aluminium, zirconium or stainless steel, and they produce two waste streams: one, an intermediate-activity waste containing about 0.1% of the fission products, results from the chemical dissolution ; the other is a high-activity waste containing the remainder of the fission products in a dilute nitric acid solution. The volume of evaporated waste varies from 0.8 1/kg of uranium for low- enrichment fuels to 500 1/kg of uranium for highly-enriched fuels. The average volume of combined high- and intermediate-level waste from the anticipated United States nuclear power industry is about five 1/kg of uranium. In the United States it is estimated that the nuclear power industry will have produced about 3,000 million curies of radioactivity in 27 million litres of solution by 1970, and 60,000 million curies  More>>
Authors:
Bruce, F. R. [1] 
  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 1960
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, Monaco (Monaco), 16-21 Nov 1959; Other Information: 82 refs., 11 tabs., 16 figs.; Related Information: In: Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes| 615 p.
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; DISSOLUTION; ENRICHMENT; FISSION PRODUCTS; HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; NUCLEAR FUELS; NUCLEAR POWER; POWER REACTORS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; REPROCESSING; SOLVENT EXTRACTION; STAINLESS STEELS; URANIUM
OSTI ID:
22192356
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France); Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3480016845
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 3-50
Announcement Date:
Feb 20, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Bruce, F. R. The Origin and Nature of Radioactive Wastes in the United States Atomic Energy Programme; Origine et Nature des Dechets Radioactifs de l'Execution des Programmes d'Energie Atomique aux Etats-Unis; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0421 0425 041e 0416 0414 ; Origen y Naturaleza de los Desechos Radiactivos en el Programa de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos. IAEA: N. p., 1960. Web.
Bruce, F. R. The Origin and Nature of Radioactive Wastes in the United States Atomic Energy Programme; Origine et Nature des Dechets Radioactifs de l'Execution des Programmes d'Energie Atomique aux Etats-Unis; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0421 0425 041e 0416 0414 ; Origen y Naturaleza de los Desechos Radiactivos en el Programa de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos. IAEA.
Bruce, F. R. 1960. "The Origin and Nature of Radioactive Wastes in the United States Atomic Energy Programme; Origine et Nature des Dechets Radioactifs de l'Execution des Programmes d'Energie Atomique aux Etats-Unis; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0421 0425 041e 0416 0414 ; Origen y Naturaleza de los Desechos Radiactivos en el Programa de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22192356,
title = {The Origin and Nature of Radioactive Wastes in the United States Atomic Energy Programme; Origine et Nature des Dechets Radioactifs de l'Execution des Programmes d'Energie Atomique aux Etats-Unis; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0421 0425 041e 0416 0414 ; Origen y Naturaleza de los Desechos Radiactivos en el Programa de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos}
author = {Bruce, F. R.}
abstractNote = {The composition of nuclear power wastes is determined, firstly, by the treatment employed for fuel reprocessing, and secondly, by the initial fuel composition. In solvent-extraction processing, wastes of high, intermediate and low activity are produced in approximate volumetric ratios of one, five and 100, respectively. The wastes resulting from reprocessing of highly enriched fuels are large in volume because they contain the fuel diluent. Low-enrichment fuels usually consist of a uranium core clad with aluminium, zirconium or stainless steel, and they produce two waste streams: one, an intermediate-activity waste containing about 0.1% of the fission products, results from the chemical dissolution ; the other is a high-activity waste containing the remainder of the fission products in a dilute nitric acid solution. The volume of evaporated waste varies from 0.8 1/kg of uranium for low- enrichment fuels to 500 1/kg of uranium for highly-enriched fuels. The average volume of combined high- and intermediate-level waste from the anticipated United States nuclear power industry is about five 1/kg of uranium. In the United States it is estimated that the nuclear power industry will have produced about 3,000 million curies of radioactivity in 27 million litres of solution by 1970, and 60,000 million curies in 1,100 million litres of solution by 2000. Power reactor, wastes present new storage and disposal problems because of their composition. (author) [French] La composition des dechets nucleaires est determinee, d'abord, par le procede employe pour le traitement du combustible et, ensuite, par la composition du combustible lui-meme. Le procede de l'extraction par solvants produit des dechets ayant une activite elevee, moyenne ou faible dans des proportions volumetriques d'environ 1,5 et 100 respectivement. Les dechets provenant du traitement des combustibles fortement enrichis, representent un volume important parce qu'ils contiennent le diluant du combustible. Les cartouches de combustible faiblement enrichi consistent ordinairement en un element d'uranium gaine d'aluminium, de zirconium ou d'acier inoxydable et donnent lieu a deux sortes de dechets. Les uns sont des dechets a activite moyenne contenant environ 0,1% de produits de fission et proviennent de la dissolution chimique. Les autres sont des dechets a activite elevee contenant tous les autres produits de fission dans une solution d'acide nitrique etendue. Le volume des dechets condenses varie de 0,8 litre par kilogramme d'uranium pour les combustibles peu enrichis a 500 litres par kilogramme d'uranium pour les combustibles fortement enrichis, le volume de l'ensemble des dechets d'intensite elevee et intermediaire qui, a ce que l'on prevoit, proviendront des centrales nucleaires aux Etats-Unis. est d'environ 5 litres par kilogramme d'uranium en moyenne. Aux Etats-Unis, on estime qu'en 1970, les centrales nucleaires auront produit environ 3 milliards de curies contenues dans 27 millions de litres de solution, et en l'an 2000, 60 milliards de curies contenues dans 1,1 milliard de litres de solution. En raison de leur composition, les dechets provenant des reacteurs de puissance posent des problemes nouveaux d'entreposage et d'elimination. (author) [Spanish] La composicion de los desechos que se forman como consecuencia de la produccion de energia nucleoelectrica depende en primer lugar del tratamiento empleado en la regeneracion del combustible y, en segundo, de la composicion inicial de este. Por cada unidad de volumen de desechos de actividad elevada, obtenidos en la extraccion mediante disolventes, se forman 5 y 100 volumenes, respectivamente, de desechos de actividad media y baja. Los desechos que se producen en la regeneracion de los combustibles muy enriquecidos son muy voluminosos por contener el diluente del combustible. Los combustibles poco enriquecidos consisten habitualmente en un nucleo de uranio revestido de aluminio, zirconio o acero inoxidable, y producen dos clases de desechos: desechos de actividad media, que resultan de la disolucion quimica, y contienen el 0,1 per ciento, aproximadamente, del total de los productos de fision, y desechos de actividad elevada, que contienen el resto de los productos de fision en una solucion diluida de acido nitrico. El volumen de los desechos evaporados varia entre 0,8 1 per kilogramo de uranio, para los combustibles poco enriquecidos y 500 1 por kilogramo de uranio, para los muy enriquecidos, se prove que la industria nuecleoelectrica de los Estados Unidos producira como termino medio unos 5 1 de desechos de actividad elevada y media por kilogramo de uranio utilizado. En los Estados Unidos se calcula que para 1970 esta industria habra producido unos 3 x 10{sup 9} curies disueltos en un volumen de 2,7 x 10{sup 7} l y 6 x 10{sup 10} curies en 1,1 x 10{sup 9} l de solucion para el ano 2000. Los desechos procedentes de los reactores generadores plantean, por razon de su composicion, nuevos problemas de almacenamiento y evacuacion. (author) [Russian] Sostav othodov, obrazuemyh pri jekspluatacii reaktorov, zavisit, vo-pervyh, ot obrabotki, kotoraja primenjaetsja pri vosproizvodstve toplivnyh jelementov, i, vo-vtoryh, ot pervonachal'nogo sostava toplivnyh jelementov. Pri obrabotki s primeneniem jekstrakcii vodnyh rastvorov vysokaja, srednjaja i nizkaja aktivnost' othodov voznikaet v priblizitel'nom ob'emnom sootnoshenii, ravnom odnomu, pjati i 100 sootvetstvenno. Othody, voznikajushhie v rezul'tate vosproizvodstva vysokoobogashhennyh toplivnyh jelementov, byvajut bol'shimi po ob{sup e}mu, tak kak oni soderzhat toplivnyj razbavitel'. Nizkoobogashhennye toplivnye jelementy obychno sostojat iz uranovoj serdceviny, pokrytoj aljuminiem, cirkoniem ili nerzhavejushhej stal'ju ; jeti jelementy dajut dva vida othodov. Pervye othody srednej stepeni aktivnosti, soderzhashhie okolo 0,1% produktov raspada, voznikajut v rezul'tate himicheskogo rastvorenija. Vtoroj vid othodov s vysokoj stepen'ju aktivnosti, soderzhit ostatki produktov raspada v razvedennom rastvore azotnoj kisloty. Ob'em isparjajushhihsja othodov kolebletsja ot 0,8 litrov na kilogramm urana dlja nizkoobogashhenshdh toplivnyh jelementov do 500 litrov na kilogramm urana dlja vysokoobogashhennyh toplivnyh jelementov, srednij ob{sup e}m soedinennyh vmeste othodov vysokoj i srednej stepeni aktivnosti ot jadernoj jenergeticheskoj promyshlennosti Soedinennyh Shtatov sostavljaet okolo pjati litrov na kilogramm urana. Po sushhestvujushhim ocenkam jadernaja jenergeticheskaja promyshlennost' v Soedinennyh Shtatah budet proizvodit' okolo 3 mlrd. kjuri radioaktivnosti v 27 mln. litrah rastvora k 1970 godu i 60 mlrd. kjuri v 1,1 mlrd. litrah rastvora k 2000 godu. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1960}
month = {Jul}
}