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Current Practice in the Management of High-Bevel Radioactive Wastes in the United States of America; La Pratique Courante de Gestion des Dechets de Haute Activite aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique; 0421 041e 0412 0420 0415 041c 0415 041d 041d 042b 0414 0 ; Metodos Corrientes de Tratamiento y Evacuacion de Desechos de Elevada Actividad Aplicados en los Estados Unidos de America

Abstract

The need for assured containment of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements was met initially by constructing large underground tanks. This simple approach is still being used to-day, with more than seventy million gallons of radioactive solutions being stored in nearly 200 underground tanks throughout the USAEC complex. A wide variety of tank designs has been used. This variety results from variations in the volumes and compositions of the wastes to be stored, in the environmental conditions of the different storage sites, and in engineering judgement factors. In each case, the particular tank design reflects a balanced judgement in which operational safety, long-term integrity, and cost are controlling factors. The capital cost of the waste storage facilities in use ranges from $0.47 to $2.66 per gallon . The costs of surveillance, waste processing or transfer, and replacement facilities must also be included in the estimation of long-term costs. It is concluded that the available data are not yet sufficient to make accurate predictions. At Hanford, reinforced concrete tanks, lined with carbon steel, are used to store radioactive solutions. Of 145 such tanks placed in service at various times since 1945, four developed leaks after 8-12 yr of storing non-heating wastes.  More>>
Authors:
Campbell, Bruce F.; Doud, Edward; Tomlinson, R. E. [1] 
  1. General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Feb 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes Radioactive Wastes, Vienna (Austria), 8-12 Oct 1962; Other Information: 6 tabs., 5 figs.; Related Information: In: Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of the Symposium on Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes| 686 p.
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; CAPITALIZED COST; CARBON STEELS; CRACKS; FISSION PRODUCTS; GROUND WATER; IDAHO; INSPECTION; PUMPS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; REINFORCED CONCRETE; SAVANNAH RIVER; STAINLESS STEELS; STRESS CORROSION; TANKS; TCV TOKAMAK; UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL; WELDED JOINTS
OSTI ID:
22188128
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3568012629
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 23-40
Announcement Date:
Feb 06, 2014

Citation Formats

Campbell, Bruce F., Doud, Edward, and Tomlinson, R. E. Current Practice in the Management of High-Bevel Radioactive Wastes in the United States of America; La Pratique Courante de Gestion des Dechets de Haute Activite aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique; 0421 041e 0412 0420 0415 041c 0415 041d 041d 042b 0414 0 ; Metodos Corrientes de Tratamiento y Evacuacion de Desechos de Elevada Actividad Aplicados en los Estados Unidos de America. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Campbell, Bruce F., Doud, Edward, & Tomlinson, R. E. Current Practice in the Management of High-Bevel Radioactive Wastes in the United States of America; La Pratique Courante de Gestion des Dechets de Haute Activite aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique; 0421 041e 0412 0420 0415 041c 0415 041d 041d 042b 0414 0 ; Metodos Corrientes de Tratamiento y Evacuacion de Desechos de Elevada Actividad Aplicados en los Estados Unidos de America. IAEA.
Campbell, Bruce F., Doud, Edward, and Tomlinson, R. E. 1963. "Current Practice in the Management of High-Bevel Radioactive Wastes in the United States of America; La Pratique Courante de Gestion des Dechets de Haute Activite aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique; 0421 041e 0412 0420 0415 041c 0415 041d 041d 042b 0414 0 ; Metodos Corrientes de Tratamiento y Evacuacion de Desechos de Elevada Actividad Aplicados en los Estados Unidos de America." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22188128,
title = {Current Practice in the Management of High-Bevel Radioactive Wastes in the United States of America; La Pratique Courante de Gestion des Dechets de Haute Activite aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique; 0421 041e 0412 0420 0415 041c 0415 041d 041d 042b 0414 0 ; Metodos Corrientes de Tratamiento y Evacuacion de Desechos de Elevada Actividad Aplicados en los Estados Unidos de America}
author = {Campbell, Bruce F., Doud, Edward, and Tomlinson, R. E.}
abstractNote = {The need for assured containment of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements was met initially by constructing large underground tanks. This simple approach is still being used to-day, with more than seventy million gallons of radioactive solutions being stored in nearly 200 underground tanks throughout the USAEC complex. A wide variety of tank designs has been used. This variety results from variations in the volumes and compositions of the wastes to be stored, in the environmental conditions of the different storage sites, and in engineering judgement factors. In each case, the particular tank design reflects a balanced judgement in which operational safety, long-term integrity, and cost are controlling factors. The capital cost of the waste storage facilities in use ranges from $0.47 to $2.66 per gallon . The costs of surveillance, waste processing or transfer, and replacement facilities must also be included in the estimation of long-term costs. It is concluded that the available data are not yet sufficient to make accurate predictions. At Hanford, reinforced concrete tanks, lined with carbon steel, are used to store radioactive solutions. Of 145 such tanks placed in service at various times since 1945, four developed leaks after 8-12 yr of storing non-heating wastes. In each case, the tanks' contents were pumped to another vessel. While radioactivity was detected in the ground surrounding the failed vessels, no radioactivity reached the ground water. A fifth tank was withdrawn from service when a distortion of the carbon steel liner was observed. At Savannah River, carbon steel vessels are constructed within concrete vaults. Four of fourteen such tanks developed small cracks in the side walls as a result of stress corrosion in the weld affected areas. The small volume of waste which seeped through the cracks was caught in the vault and returned tcv the vessels. The seepage has now stopped and the vessels are still in use. At Idaho Falls, stainless steel tanks are constructed within concrete vaults. No operational problems or tank failures have been encountered. While the current practice of storing radioactive solutions has been completely successful in preventing significant amounts of radioactivity from escaping to the environment, the feeling persits that a better way at reasonable cost should be found to assure the long-term containment of radioactive materials. (author) [French] Il est necessaire d'enfermer les produits de fission radioactifs et les elements transuraniens dans des recipients donnant toutes les garanties voulues et les premieres solutions de ce probleme ont consiste a construire de grands reservoirs souterrains. Cette methode tres simple est encore appliquee de nos jours et plus de 70 millions de gallons de solution radioactive sont stockes dans pres de 200 citernes souterraines, pour l*ensemble des installations de la CEA-EU. On utilise une grande variete de reservoirs de conception differente suivant le volume et la composition des dechets a stocker, les conditions du milieu au site d'entreposage et les particularites techniques prises en consideration. Dans chaque cas, le choix du type de reservoir tient compte a la fois de sa securite d'utilisation, de sa duree probable et de son prix de revient. Les depenses d'investissement pour les installations de stockage utilisees varient de 0,47 a 2,66 dollars/ gallon. On doit tenir compte egalement des frais de surveillance, de traitement ou de tfansport des dechets et de l'amortissement du materiel pour calculer le cout a long terme. Les donnees dont on dispose sont encore insuffisantes pour permettre des-predictions precises. A Hanford, les solutions radioactives sont stockees dans des reservoirs en beton arme, revetu d'aciei ordinaire. Sur 145 de ces reservoirs mis en service a divers moments depuis 1945, quatre ont presente des fuites apres stockage, pendant 8 a 12 ans,, de dechets ne degageant pas de chaleur. A chaque fois, on a pompe le contenu de reservoir pour le stocker dans un autre. On a constate une radioactivite dans le terrain entourant les reservoirs defectueux, mais cette radioactivite n'a pas atteint l'eau outerraine. Un cinquieme reservoir a ete mis hors service parce qu'on a constate une deformation du revetement d'acier. A Savannah River, on a construit des citernes d'acier ordinaire dans des caves en beton. Quatre de ces citernes ont presente de petites fissures laterales a la suite d'une corrosion dans les zones a soudures. La faible quantite de dechets qui avait suinte a travers les fissures a ete recuperee dans la cave et remise dans les citernes. Le suintage a maintenant cesse et les reservoirs sont toujours en usage. A Idaho Falls, ce sont des citernes d'acier inoxydable construites dans des caves en beton. Leur utilisation ne s'est heurtee a aucun probleme et on n'a pas constate de defaillance des recipients. Ainsi, la methode courante de stockage des solutions radioactives donne des resultats excellents puisqu'elle empeche que des quantites appreciables de radioactivite ne s'echappent dans le milieu ambiant; mais on continue a penser qu'on pourrait trouver un meilleur procede d'un cout raisonnable pour assurer le stockage de longue duree des matieres radioactives. (author) [Spanish] En un principio, se atendio a la necesidad de confinar en lugar seguro los productos de fision y elementos transurinicos radiactivos construyendo grandes depositos subterraneos. Este sencillo procedimiento sigue aplicandose .en la actualidad, habiendose acumulado mas de 70 milliones de gallones de soluciones radiactivas en unos 200 depositos subterraneos pertenecientes a la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos. Se utilizan depositos de muy diferentes tipos. Esta variedad es consecuencia de la diversidad de las cantidades y composiciones de los desechos que han de almacenarse, de las condiciones ambientales de los diferentes lugares de almacenamiento y de los criterios tecnicos aplicados. Los diversos tipos de deposito representan en cada caso una solucion equilibrada cuyos factores determinantes son la seguridad de funcionamiento, la duracion y el costo. Los gastos de inversion unitarios correspondientes a los dispositivos de almacenamiento de desechos actualmente utilizados oscilan entre 0,47 y 2, 66 dolares/gal. Tambien han de incluirse en el calculo de los gastos a largo plazo los correspondientes a vigilancia, tratamiento o transvase de desechos e instalaciones de reemplazo. Los autores llegan a la conclusion de que los datos disponibles no permiten por ahora formular predicciones precisas. En Hanford se utilizan depositos de hormigon armado, con revestimiento de acero al carbono, para almacenar soluciones radiactivas. En cuatro de los 145 depositos puestos en servicio desde 1945, se produjeron escapes despues de contener durante periodos de 8 a 12 anos desechos que no generan calor. En cada caso, el contenido de los depositos se transvaso por medio de bombas a otro recipiente. Si bien se detecto radiactividad en el terreno circundante de los depositos defectuosos, la radiactividad no paso a las aguas subterraneas. Otro deposito fue retirado del servicio al observarse una deformacion de su revestimiento de acero al carbono. En Savannah River, se construyen recipientes de acero al carbono alojados en bovedas de hormigon. En cuatro de estos depositos, de un total de 14, se han formado pequenas grietas en las paredes laterales a consecuencia de corrosion con tension en las zonas afectadas por la soldadura. La pequena cantidad de desechos que escapo por las grietas se recogio en la boveda y se volvio a introducir en los depositos. En la actualidad ha cesado el escape y los recipientes siguen utilizandose. En Idaho Falls, se estan construyendo depositos de acero inoxidable alojados en boveda de hormigon. No se han planteado problemas ni se han observado defectos en los depositos. Si bien los metodos actuales de almacenamiento de soluciones radiactivas son enteramente eficaces para impedir el escape de cantidades importantes de radiactividad al medio ambiente, persiste la creencia de que deberia hallarse un procedimiento mas adecuado para lograr a un costo razonable el confinamiento a largo plazo de los desechos radiactivos. (author) [Russian] Vnachale dlja garantirovannogo zahoronenija radioaktivnyh produktov delenija i transuranovyh jelementov stroilis' bol'shie podzemnye rezervuary. V nastojashhee vremja vo vsej sisteme KAJe imeetsja priblizitel'no 200 podzemnyh rezervuarov, v'kotoryh hranitsja svyshe 264 mln. l radioaktivnyh rastvorov. Primenjajutsja rezervuary samyh razlichnyh konstrukcij. Takoe raznoobrazie ob{sup j}asnjaetsja razlichiem a ob{sup e}mah i sostavah podlezhashhih zahoroneniju othodov, razlichiem v okruzhajushhih uslovijah zahoronenija i tehnicheskimi soobrazhenijami. V kazhdom sluchae v konstrukcii konkretnogo rezervuara otrazhaetsja vzvyshennaja so vseh tochek zrenija ocenka, v kotoroj opredeljajushhimi faktorami javljajutsja bezopasnost' jekspluatacii, sohrannost' v techenie dolgogo vremeni i stoimost'. Kapital'nye zatraty na stroitel'stvo ispol'zuemyh ustanovok dlja zahoronenija othodov kolebljutsja v predelah 0,47 - 2,66 amer.doll. za kazhdye 4 l othodov. V ocenku dolgosrochnyh zatrat dolzhny byt' vkljucheny stoimost' nabljudenija, obrabotki ili peremeshhenija othodov i zatraty na zamenu ustanovok. Delaetsja vyvod, chto imejushhihsja dannyh eshhe nedostatochno dlja formulirovanija tochnyh predpolozhenij . V Hjenforde dlja hranenija radioaktivnyh rastvorov ispol'zujutsja betonnye rezervuary s pokrytiem iz uglerodistoj stali. Chetyre iz 145 vvedennyh v jekspluataciju s 1945 goda rezervuara dali tech' posle 8-12 let hranenija nenagrevajushhihsja rastvorov. V kazhdom sluchae soderzhimoe jetih rezervuarov perekachivalos' v drugie. V to vremja, kak obnaruzhivali radioaktivnost' v grunte vokrug vyshedshih iz stroja rezervuarov, v gruntovye vody ona ne popadala. Pjatyj rezervuar byl snjat s jekspluatacii posle togo, kak bylo obnaruzheno iskrivlenie v obolochke iz uglerodistoj stali. Na Savanna-River rezervuary iz uglerodistoj stali sooruzhajutsja vnutri betonnyh kamer. V 4 iz 14 takih rezervuarov obrazovalis' nebol'shie treshhiny v bokovyh stenkah v rezul'tate korrozii iz-za perenaprjazhenija v mestah svarki. Nebol'shoe kolichestvo othodov, prosachivshihsja cherez treshhiny, bylo zaderzhano v kamere i vozvrashheno v rezervuary. V nastojashhee vremja prosachivanie priostanovleno, i rezervuary eshhe ispol'zujutsja. Vblizi vodopadov v Ajdaho sooruzheny rezervuary iz nerzhavejushhej stali v betonnyh kamerah. Nikakih problem pri jekspluatacii idi povrezhdenij v rezervuarah ne voznikalo. Hotja primenjaemye v nastojashhee vremja metody hranenija radioaktivnyh rastvorov okazalis' vpolne uspeshnymi v dele predotvrashhenija utechki znachitel'nyh kolichestv radioaktivnosti v okruzhajushhuju sredu, vyskazyvaetsja mnenie o neobhodimosti razrabotki v predelah razumnoj stoimosti novogo metoda dlja obespechenija dlitel'nogo zahoronenija radioaktivnyh materialov. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Feb}
}