You need JavaScript to view this

Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout

Abstract

Multiple nodules of the thyroid gland have developed in a Marshallese population 10 to 14 years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout The exposure occurred in 1954 when an unpredicted shift in winds caused deposition of fallout on several Marshall Islands east of Bikini Sixty four people received 175 rads of gamma radiation which proved to be sub lethal but resulted in early nausea and vomiting and significant depression of blood elements Exposure of the skin resulted m beta bums and epilation and there was significant internal absorption of fission isotopes from contaminated food and water The most serious internal exposure was from radioiodines ({sup 131}I {sup 132}I {sup 133}I {sup 135}I) It was estimated that in addition to the gamma radiation the adult thyroid gland received 160 rads from radioiodines and the young children because of their considerably smaller glands an estimated 700 1400 rads Recovery of blood elements to nearly normal and healing of skin lesions with regrowth of hair was complete by one year These findings have been fully documented The most important late radiation effect has been the development of thyroid abnormalities Since 1963 a total of 20 cases have thus far been detected 17 in  More>>
Authors:
Conard, R. A.; [1]  Sutow, W. W.; [2]  Colcock, B. P.; [3]  Dobyns, B. M.; [4]  Paglia, D. E. [5] 
  1. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)
  2. M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston, TX (United States)
  3. Lahey Clinic, Boston, MA (United States)
  4. Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States)
  5. Center for the Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Nov 15, 1969
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-118/8
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Radiation-Induced Cancer, Athens (Greece), 28 Apr - 2 May 1969; Other Information: 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.; Related Information: In: Radiation-Induced Cancer. Proceedings of a Symposium on Radiation-Induced Cancer| 512 p.
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; BLOOD; CARCINOMAS; CHILDREN; FALLOUT; GAMMA RADIATION; HAIR; HYPOTHYROIDISM; IODINE 131; IODINE 132; IODINE 133; IODINE 135; SEAFOOD; THYROID; THYROID HORMONES
OSTI ID:
22182163
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3978006662
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 325-335
Announcement Date:
Jan 23, 2014

Citation Formats

Conard, R. A., Sutow, W. W., Colcock, B. P., Dobyns, B. M., and Paglia, D. E. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout. IAEA: N. p., 1969. Web.
Conard, R. A., Sutow, W. W., Colcock, B. P., Dobyns, B. M., & Paglia, D. E. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout. IAEA.
Conard, R. A., Sutow, W. W., Colcock, B. P., Dobyns, B. M., and Paglia, D. E. 1969. "Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22182163,
title = {Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout}
author = {Conard, R. A., Sutow, W. W., Colcock, B. P., Dobyns, B. M., and Paglia, D. E.}
abstractNote = {Multiple nodules of the thyroid gland have developed in a Marshallese population 10 to 14 years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout The exposure occurred in 1954 when an unpredicted shift in winds caused deposition of fallout on several Marshall Islands east of Bikini Sixty four people received 175 rads of gamma radiation which proved to be sub lethal but resulted in early nausea and vomiting and significant depression of blood elements Exposure of the skin resulted m beta bums and epilation and there was significant internal absorption of fission isotopes from contaminated food and water The most serious internal exposure was from radioiodines ({sup 131}I {sup 132}I {sup 133}I {sup 135}I) It was estimated that in addition to the gamma radiation the adult thyroid gland received 160 rads from radioiodines and the young children because of their considerably smaller glands an estimated 700 1400 rads Recovery of blood elements to nearly normal and healing of skin lesions with regrowth of hair was complete by one year These findings have been fully documented The most important late radiation effect has been the development of thyroid abnormalities Since 1963 a total of 20 cases have thus far been detected 17 in children exposed at less than 10 years of age (90% of that group) and 3 in adults Thyroid surgery on 11 children and 3 adults revealed that all had benign adenomatous nodules except for a mixed papillary and follicular carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman The benign nodules were similar to those associated with iodine deficiency but such deficiency was not apparent m the Marshallese who live largely on seafood However most pathologists could not distinguish definite radiation effects in the nodules Growth and development retardation in some of the exposed children is now clearly related to thyroid deficiency Two boys with the greatest growth retardation developed pronounced hypothyroidism with atrophy of their thyroid glands Treatment of the exposed group with thyroid hormone appears to be enhancing growth in the children and reduced nodule formation in a few cases Hopefully such treatment will also reduce the risk for development of thyroid cancer since this group undoubtedly has a higher risk for such malignancy Results of a medical survey of these people carried out in March 1969 are also presented. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1969}
month = {Nov}
}