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Shipment of Gross Quantities of Radiostrontium; Transport de Grandes Quantites de Radiostrontium; 0422 0420 0410 041d 0421 041f 041e 0420 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 041a 0410 0411 041e 041b 042c 0428 0418 0425 041a 041e 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 0422 0412 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 ; Transporte de Grandes Cantidades de Radioestroncio

Conference:

Abstract

Future applications of radionuclides as heat or radiation sources are promising. The current and anticipated needs involve megacurie quantities of such nuclides as Sr{sup 90}, Cs{sup 137}, Ce{sup 144}, and Pm{sup 147}. Because of the remote locations of the sources of supply of these fission products, it is necessary to package and ship bulk lots of these nuclides. There is little precedent for shipment of isolated specific radionuclides in quantities of the region of a hundred thousand curies in concentrated form involving a few kilograms as a bulk product. In addition to the usual radiation shielding and heat- transfer requirements, shipments of this type are subject to several types of potential accidents which could release some of the contents to the atmoshere or to a fresh-water system. Cask-design criteria were developed for shipments from Hanford to provide containment of contents under all normal shipping conditions and under accident conditions defined as impact .with an unyielding surface at 44 ft/sec followed by either loss of heat dissipation for 48 hr or immersion in a fire at 2500 Degree-Sign F for 2 hr. In addition to containment, the early cask designs provided for loading and unloading by handling solutions, and remote operation  More>>
Authors:
Zahn, L. L.; Smith, C. W.; Junkins, R. L. [1] 
  1. Hanford Laboratories General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Feb 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes Radioactive Wastes, Vienna (Austria), 8-12 Oct 1962; Other Information: 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.; Related Information: In: Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of the Symposium on Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes| 686 p.
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; CASKS; CERIUM 144; CESIUM 137; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; PROMETHIUM 147; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE
OSTI ID:
22182137
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3599006636
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 623-636
Announcement Date:
Jan 23, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Zahn, L. L., Smith, C. W., and Junkins, R. L. Shipment of Gross Quantities of Radiostrontium; Transport de Grandes Quantites de Radiostrontium; 0422 0420 0410 041d 0421 041f 041e 0420 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 041a 0410 0411 041e 041b 042c 0428 0418 0425 041a 041e 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 0422 0412 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 ; Transporte de Grandes Cantidades de Radioestroncio. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Zahn, L. L., Smith, C. W., & Junkins, R. L. Shipment of Gross Quantities of Radiostrontium; Transport de Grandes Quantites de Radiostrontium; 0422 0420 0410 041d 0421 041f 041e 0420 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 041a 0410 0411 041e 041b 042c 0428 0418 0425 041a 041e 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 0422 0412 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 ; Transporte de Grandes Cantidades de Radioestroncio. IAEA.
Zahn, L. L., Smith, C. W., and Junkins, R. L. 1963. "Shipment of Gross Quantities of Radiostrontium; Transport de Grandes Quantites de Radiostrontium; 0422 0420 0410 041d 0421 041f 041e 0420 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 041a 0410 0411 041e 041b 042c 0428 0418 0425 041a 041e 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 0422 0412 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 ; Transporte de Grandes Cantidades de Radioestroncio." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22182137,
title = {Shipment of Gross Quantities of Radiostrontium; Transport de Grandes Quantites de Radiostrontium; 0422 0420 0410 041d 0421 041f 041e 0420 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 041a 0410 0411 041e 041b 042c 0428 0418 0425 041a 041e 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 0422 0412 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 ; Transporte de Grandes Cantidades de Radioestroncio}
author = {Zahn, L. L., Smith, C. W., and Junkins, R. L.}
abstractNote = {Future applications of radionuclides as heat or radiation sources are promising. The current and anticipated needs involve megacurie quantities of such nuclides as Sr{sup 90}, Cs{sup 137}, Ce{sup 144}, and Pm{sup 147}. Because of the remote locations of the sources of supply of these fission products, it is necessary to package and ship bulk lots of these nuclides. There is little precedent for shipment of isolated specific radionuclides in quantities of the region of a hundred thousand curies in concentrated form involving a few kilograms as a bulk product. In addition to the usual radiation shielding and heat- transfer requirements, shipments of this type are subject to several types of potential accidents which could release some of the contents to the atmoshere or to a fresh-water system. Cask-design criteria were developed for shipments from Hanford to provide containment of contents under all normal shipping conditions and under accident conditions defined as impact .with an unyielding surface at 44 ft/sec followed by either loss of heat dissipation for 48 hr or immersion in a fire at 2500 Degree-Sign F for 2 hr. In addition to containment, the early cask designs provided for loading and unloading by handling solutions, and remote operation of process fittings and closures. Shipments of fission products to date have been made either as a filter cake which is dried and stabilized in the cask or as a cation absorbed on an inorganic, ion-exchange material. Hanford-designed casks, which have been used for shipping strontium-90 in both product forms, are described and a comparison of the differences in basic design requirements is made. While these casks were designed to withstand the defined accident conditions, it was recognized that a severe accident could release some of the contents. Evaluation of the consequences of such postulated releases indicated that releases which could become airborne were more severe than releases to fresh-water systems; thus, the physical and chemical properties of the shipment medium are of great importance. Extensive decontamination of property and evacuation of the populace would be required if these long-lived radionuclides were dispersed in populated areas. In view of the serious consequences of an accidental release, even though the probability of such an accident is small, it was deemed appropriate to impose administrative controls which were planned to reduce the probability of a severe accident and, in the event of such an accident, to minimize the damages. The damage evaluations have defined certain areas as requiring further development to obtain improved shipping conditions. Work is progressing in development of shipping forms which maintain current customer utility and which offer improved stability under accident conditions. Impact testing of current cask designs is in progress and the results of these tests are being evaluated to define the optimum combination of cask rigidity and use of impact absorbers which is required to obtain the required structural integrity. (author) [French] Les applications futures des radioelements 'comme sources de chaleur ou de rayonnements sont prometteuses. A en juger par les besoins actuels et prevus, on aura besoin de megacuries de {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce et {sup 147}Pm. Etant donne que ces produits de fission ne peuvent etre fournis que par des installations eloignees des centres de consommation, il faut prendre des mesures speciales pour leur emballage et leur transport. Il existe peu de precedents pour le transport de quelques kilogrammes d'un radionucleide representant une activite de l'ordre de 100 000 c. Outre les prescriptions habituelles concernant l'isolement et le transfert de chaleur, il faut observer des regles particulieres du fait que ces envois peuvent subir divers accidents qui pourraient liberer une partie de leur contenu dans l'atmosphere ou dans les eaux. On a etabli des normes pour la fabrication des recipients utilises pour les envois de Hanford, le critere de base etant d'assurer le confinement du contenu dans toutes les conditions normales de transport et en cas d'accident (impact avec une surface immobile a 50 km/h, suivi d'une interruption de 48 h de la dissipation de chaleur ou de l'exposition a un feu de 1570 Degree-Sign C pendant deux heures). A l'origine, les recipients etaient pourvus de dispositifs qui permettaient leur chargement et leur dechargement a la main et la commande a distance des ajustages et fermetures. Jusqu'a present, on transportait les produits de fission sous forme de tourteaux seches et stabilises dans le recipient ou sous forme de cations adsorbes par une substance inorganique echangeuse d'ions. Les auteurs decrivent les recipients construits a Hanford pour le transport de90Sr sous ces deux formes et comparent leurs specifications essentielles. Bien que ces recipients aient ete prevus pour supporter les accidents definis plus haut, on a reconnu qu'un accident grave pouvait provoquer la liberation d'une partie de leur contenu. L'evaluation des consequences possibles d'une telle liberation a montre que la dispersion dans l'atmosphere serait plus grave que la dispersion dans l'eau douce; c'est pourquoi les proprietes physiques et chimiques du moyen de transport ont une grande importance. Si ces radioelements a longue periode se dispersaient dans des zones d'habitation, il faudrait proceder a l'evacuation de la population et a une decontamination generale. Bien que la probabilite d'une liberation accidentelle soit tres faible, on a juge necessaire, en raison des consequences graves qu'elle pourrait avoir, d'imposer des controles administratifs visant a diminuer la possibilite d'un accident grave et a minimiser les dommages qui pouvaient etre ainsi causes. L'evaluation des dommages possibles a permis de definir les ameliorations a apporter pour parfaire les conditions de transport. On met au point a l'heure actuelle des recipients qui garderont longtemps leur integrite et qui resisteront mieux aux accidents. On poursuit les essais de resistance aux chocs des recipients de type courant et on analyse les resultats pour determiner la combinaison optimum des qualites de rigidite et d'amortissement qui assurera l'integrite structurelle requise. (author) [Spanish] Las tucuras aplicaciones de los radionuclidos como fuentes de calor o de radiaciones son prometedoras. A juzgar por las necesidades actuales y previstas, se precisaran cantidades del orden del megacurie de {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce y {sup 147}Pm, etc. Como las fuentes de suministro de estos productos de fision se encuentran en sitios remotos, es necesario embalar y transportar estos nilclidos en grandes cantidades. Existen escasos precedentes en lo que atane al transporte de determinados radionuclidos separados en cantidades del orden de los cien mil curies y de varios kilogramos de productos en forma concentrada. Ademas de las especificaciones corrientes relativas al blindaje y a la transmision de calor, en las expediciones de esta indole deben observarse otras especiales porque son susceptibles de sufrir distintos accidentes que podrian liberar parte del contenido en la atmosfera o en las aguas dulces. Se han establecido normas para el diseno de los envases empleados en los envios que se efectuan desde Hanford a fin de lograr un confinamiento del contenido en todas las condiciones normales de transporte y en caso de accidente (definido como un impacto con una superficie resistente a 44 pies/s, con la subsiguiente interrupcion de la disipacion de calor durante 48 h o la exposicion a un fuego de 2 500 Degree-Sign F durante dos horas). Ademas de asegurar el confinamiento, los primeros envases contaban con dispositivos que permitian efectuar a mano la carga y la descarga, asi como la manipulacion a distancia de los ajustes y cierres. Hasta la fecha, los productos de fision se han transportado en forma de tortas de filtracion, que se secan y establizan en el envase, o en forma de cationes adsorbidos en una sustancia inorganica de intercambio ionico. En la memoria se describen los envases construidos en Hanford, que han servido para el transporte del {sup 90}Sr en las dos formas mencionadas, y se comparan las diferencias entre las normas basicas de construccion. Si bien estos envases estan proyectados para soportar determinados accidentes, se reconocio que un accidente grave puede provocar la liberacion de parte de su contenido. La evaluacion de las posibles consecuencias de un escape en esas condiciones ha demostrado que la dispersion en la atmosfera seria mas grave que en las aguas dulces; por ello, las propiedades fisicas y quimicas del medio de transporte revisten gran importancia. Si dichos radionuclidos de periodo largo se dispersasen en zonas pobladas, seria necesario proceder a una descontaminacion general y a la evacuacion de la poblacion. Aunque la probabilidad de un escape accidental sea muy reducida, se considero conveniente, en vista de sus serias consecuencias, imponer controles administrativos a fin de reducir la probabilidad de un accidente grave, y reducir los danos a un minimo en caso de accidente de esa indole. La evaluacion de los posibles danos ha demonstrado la necesidad de perfeccionar ciertas caracteristicas a fin de mejorar las condiciones de transporte. Se han construido recipientes de transporte que seguiran siendo eficaces para los usuarios y que al mismo tiempo ofreceran mas estabilidad en caso de accidente. Se estan efectuando, con envases de tipo corriente, ensayos de resistencia al impacto; se examinan los resultados obtenidos a fin de establecer la combinacion optima entre la rigidez del envase y el empleo de amortiguadores a fin de lograr la resistencia estructural requerida. (author) [Russian] Primenenie radioizotopov v kachestve istochnika tepla ili radiacii v budushhem rassmatrivaetsja kak perspektivnoe. Tekushhie i predusmatrivaemye potrebnosti vyrazhajutsja v kolichestvah megakjuri takih radioizotopov, kak Sr{sup 90}, Cs{sup 137}, Ce{sup 144}, i Pm{sup 147} bol'shoj otdalennosti istochnikov snabzhenija jetimi produktami delenija neobhodimo upakovyvat' i otpravljat' ih krupnymi partijami. Imeetsja precedent otpravki otdel'nogo opredelennogo radioizotopa v koncentrirovannom vide aktivnost'ju porjadka sto tysjach kjuri, chto predstavljaet soboj vsego lish' neskol'ko kilogrammov produkta. Otpravki takogo roda soprjazheny s potencial'nymi vozmozhnostjami raznogo roda neschastnyh sluchaev, pri kotoryh nekotoroe kolichestvo soderzhimogo kontejnera mozhet popast' v atmosferu ili v sistemu vodosnabzhenija. Dlja otpravok iz Hjenforda byli razrabotany konstrukcii kontejnerov, obespechivajushhie germetichnost' i sohrannost' soderzhimogo vo vseh obychnyh uslovijah transportirovki i pri vozmozhnyh avarijah, naprimer pri udare o tverduju poverhnost' s siloj 44 fut/funt/sek s posledujushhim vysvobozhdeniem tepla v techenie 48 chasov ili pri nahozhdenii v ogne pri 2 500 Degree-Sign F v techenie dvuh chasov. Pervonachal'nye konstrukcii kontejnerov predusmatrivali, pomimo germetizacii, manipuljatory dlja pogruzki i razgruzki, a takzhe distancionnoe upravlenie kryshkami kontejnerov pri tehnologicheskoj obrabotke. Do nastojashhego vremeni produkty delenija transportirovalis' libo v vide briketov, stabilizirovavshihsja v samom kontejnere, libo v vide adsorbirovannyh kationami produktov, ulovlennyh neorganicheskimi materialami ionnoobmennikov. Opisyvaetsja konstrukcija hjenfordskih kontejnerov, kotorye byli ispol'zovany dlja transportirovki stroncija-90 v oboih vidah produkta, i ukazyvaetsja razlichie v osnovnyh trebovanijah konstrukcii. Hotja jeti kontejnery byli skonstruirovany s uchetom opredelennyh avarijnyh uslovij, dopuskalos', chto v sluchae ser'eznogo incidenta mozhet proizojti vybros nekotorogo kolichestva soderzhimogo. Ocenka posledstvij takih sluchaev pokazyvaet, chto popadanie radioaktivnogo veshhestva v ajerozoli bolee pagubno chem v sistemu vodosnabzhenija; pojetomu fizicheskie i himicheskie svojstva materiala, v kotoryj vveden transportiruemyj produkt, imejut bol'shoe znachenie. V avarijnyh sluchajah rassejanija dolgozhivushhih radioizotopov v naselennyh rajonah pridetsja proizvodit' shirokuju dezaktivaciju imushhestva i jevakuirovat' naselenie. Vvidu tjazhelyh posledstvij avarijnogo vybrosa radioaktivnogo veshhestva, hotja verojatnost' takih sluchaev i ne velika, bylo sochteno umestnym vvodit' objazatel'nye administrativnye mery kontrolja, chtoby preduprezhdat' takie avarii, a v sluchae, esli oni proizojdut - svodit' do minimuma ushherb ot nih. Ocenka ushherba ot podobnyh avarij vyjavila nekotorye oblasti, v kotoryh trebuetsja dal'nejshee uluchshenie uslovij transportirovki. V nastojashhee vremja vedutsja raboty po izyskaniju sposobov transportirovki, kotorye ne ugrozhajut zagrjazneniem produktov shirokogo potreblenija i obespechivajut bol'tuju ustojchivost' v avarijnyh uslovijah. Ispytyvajutsja na udar kontejnery obychnoj konstrukcii, i rezul'taty jetih ispytanij analizirujutsja dlja vyjavlenija optimal'nyh dannyh otnositel'no zhestkosti kontejnera i sootvetstvujushhej amortizacii v celjah povyshenija nadezhnosti konstrukcii. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Feb}
}