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On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados

Conference:

Abstract

As several isotopes have a long half-life, it is necessary to ensure that they remain securely fixed over a lengthy period. This necessitates study of their behaviour in vitreous blocks after prolonged storage, during which spontaneous heating and radiation occur and they are submitted to influence of the environment. The efforts made to reduce the volume of the blocks for burial and to lessen the volatility of the isotopes during preparation (temperature not exceeding 1200 Degree-Sign C) result in the blocks acquiring a heterogeneous structure, so that they are no longer true glasses but vitreous compounds. The characteristics of such blocks and their ability to immobilize fission isotopes depends to a great extent on their chemical composition (quantity and nature of flux), manner of preparation and subsequent storage. Temperature rises brought about by the release of heat from the high-activity blocks in the burial ground lead to chemical and physical processes within them and greatly influence the retention of wastes, especially at the block surfaces. The leachability of isotopes from vitreous blocks normally increases once the temperature exceeds 400 Degree-Sign C. It is therefore inadyisable to allow excessively high temperatures to build up in the burial grounds. The high level  More>>
Publication Date:
Feb 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes Radioactive Wastes, Vienna (Austria), 8-12 Oct 1962; Other Information: 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.; Related Information: In: Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of the Symposium on Treatment and Storage of High-Level Radioactive Wastes| 686 p.
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CONTAINMENT; GLASS; HALF-LIFE; HARDNESS; HEATING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; RADIOACTIVE WASTE FACILITIES; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RETENTION; SERVICE LIFE; TITANIUM COMPOUNDS; VOLATILITY; WEAR RESISTANCE
OSTI ID:
22182124
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
Russian
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3586006623
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 397-409
Announcement Date:
Jan 23, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Zimakov, P. V., Kulichenko, V. V., Duhovich, F. S., and Salamatmn, B. A. On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Zimakov, P. V., Kulichenko, V. V., Duhovich, F. S., & Salamatmn, B. A. On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados. IAEA.
Zimakov, P. V., Kulichenko, V. V., Duhovich, F. S., and Salamatmn, B. A. 1963. "On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22182124,
title = {On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados}
author = {Zimakov, P. V., Kulichenko, V. V., Duhovich, F. S., and Salamatmn, B. A.}
abstractNote = {As several isotopes have a long half-life, it is necessary to ensure that they remain securely fixed over a lengthy period. This necessitates study of their behaviour in vitreous blocks after prolonged storage, during which spontaneous heating and radiation occur and they are submitted to influence of the environment. The efforts made to reduce the volume of the blocks for burial and to lessen the volatility of the isotopes during preparation (temperature not exceeding 1200 Degree-Sign C) result in the blocks acquiring a heterogeneous structure, so that they are no longer true glasses but vitreous compounds. The characteristics of such blocks and their ability to immobilize fission isotopes depends to a great extent on their chemical composition (quantity and nature of flux), manner of preparation and subsequent storage. Temperature rises brought about by the release of heat from the high-activity blocks in the burial ground lead to chemical and physical processes within them and greatly influence the retention of wastes, especially at the block surfaces. The leachability of isotopes from vitreous blocks normally increases once the temperature exceeds 400 Degree-Sign C. It is therefore inadyisable to allow excessively high temperatures to build up in the burial grounds. The high level of radiation from high-activity blocks also has a marked influence on changes in the structure of the blocks and consequently in the durability of the bond between them and the fission isotopes. The changes also proceed in the first instance from surfaces in contact with the surrounding media (air, water). The leachability of isotopes from radioactive blocks normally increases. An increased release of radioisotopes from the surface into gaseous phase was established experimentally in the case of radioactive blocks. In view of all die influences to which the vitreous blocks are subject over a considerable time, their chemical composition and manner of preparation (flux) must be carefully selected so as to ensure that the radioisotopes remain securely fixed in the buried blocks. In this connection, titanium compounds are especially interesting as fluxes. (author) [French] Etant donne la longue periode de certains radio- isotopes, il est necessaire de les contenir pendant un temps prolonge, en evitant toute fuite; il faut donc etudier leur comportement dans des blocs de verre lors d'une conservation de longue duree: auto-echauffement, irradiation reciproque, influence du milieu ambiant. Si l'on cherche a limiter la dimension des blocs aux fins d'enfouissement, et a reduire la volatilite des radioisotopes en cours de preparation (temperature maximum: 1200'C), on obtient des blocs de structure peu homogene. Ceux-ci se composent d'ailleurs non pas de verre veritable, mais de melanges 'vitreux'. Les proprietes de ces blocs, notamment leur aptitude a fixer d'une facon durable les produits de fission radioactifs, dependent dans une large mesure de leur composition chimique (quantite et nature des fondants), ainsi que des conditions de leur preparation et de leur conservation ulterieure. La chaleur degagee par les blocs fortement radioactifs, dans l'entrepOt souterrain, donne lieu a des modifications chimiques et physiques de leur structure et influe fortement sur la duree de la fixation des produits de fission, notamment pres de la surface des blocs. Le risque de lixiviation s'accroit, en regle generale, loisque la temperature depasse 400UC. Il est donc souhaitable d'eviter la formation de temperatures trop elevees dans les entrepots. D'aune part, la forte densite des rayonnements emis par les blocs influe sensiblement sur la transformation de la structure des blocs et, de ce fait, sur la duree de la fixation des produits de fission qui s'y trouvent. D'ailleurs, ces transformations se produisent avant tout a partir de la surface, au contact du milieu exterieur (air, eau). D'une maniere generale, le risque de lixiviation va croissant. Les experiences ont montre que les radioisotopes des couches superficielles ont tortement tendance a passer a l'etat gazeux. Etant donne les nombreux facteurs qui agissent sur les blocs pendant un entreposage prolonge, il convient de veiller specialement a la composition chimique de ces blocs (tondants) et aux conditions de leur preparation, si l'on veut eviter toute fuite de radioisotopes dans les blocs enfouis. A cet egard, l'emploi de composes du titane comme fondant presente un interet particulier. (author) [Spanish] Debido al largo periodo de semidesintegracion de algunos isotopos, es preciso llegar a fijarlos en forma segura por tiempo indefinido, lo cual exige estudiar el comportamiento a largo plazo de tales isotopos en los bloques vitreos, teniendo presente factores tales como el autocalentamiento, la irradiacion reciproca y la influencia del medio ambiente. Si se procura reducir el volumen de los bloques para depositarlos bajo tierra y limitar la volatilidad de los isotopos en el curso de su preparacion (temperatura maxima: 120 Degree-Sign C), se obtienen bloques de estructura carente de homogeneidad. No se trata de verdaderos vidrios, sino de compuestos de aspecto vitreo. Las propiedades de estos bloques y su capacidad de fijar los productos de fision dependen sobre todo de su composicion quimica (cantidad y naturaleza de fundente), de las condiciones de preparacion y del almacenamiento ulterior. La elevacion de la temperatura a consecuencia del calor desprendido en los bloques fuertemente radiactivos depositados bajo tierra provoca modificaciones quimicas y fisicas de su estructura e influye mucho en su capacidad de fijacion de los isotopos, especialmente en su superficie. El riesgo de lixiviacion suele aumentar cuando la temperatura supera los 40OeC. Por lo tanto, es preciso evitar las temperaturas excesivas en los depositos. Asimismo, la eievada densidad de las radiaciones emitidas por los bloques ejerce una influencia apreciable en las alteraciones de la estructura de los mismos y, por consiguiente, en su capacidad de fijacion de los isotopos. Esas alteraciones son mas pronunciadas en la superficie, debido al contacto con los agentes externos (aire, agua). El riesgo-de lixiviacion aumenta, como es logico, con la irradiacion de los bloques. Los experimentos realizados por los autores demuestran que los radioisotopos de las capas superficiales acusan una fuerte tendencia a pasar al estado gaseoso. Teniendo en cuenta el efecto combinado de los factores que actuan sobre los bloques vitreos diurante un almacenamiento prolongado, es preciso, mediante una eleccion adecuada de su composicion quimica (tundente) y de. las condiciones de elaboracion, asegurar la fijacion deseada de los isotopos radiactivos en los bloques enterrados. Ofrece gran interes, en ese sentido, el empleo de compuestos de titanio para la preparacion del fundente. (author) [Russian] V svjazi s tem, chto nekotorye izotopy imejut bol'shie periody poluraspada, neobhodimo obespechit' ih nadezhnuju lokalizaciju ka dlitel'noe vremja, a jeto trebuet izuchenija povedenija takih izotopov v steklovidnyh blokah pod vlijaniem uslovij, kotorye sozdajutsja pri dlitel'nom hranenii: samorazogrev, samoobluchenie, vlijanie okruzhajushhej sredy. Stremlenie ogranichit ob'em blokov d. ja zahoronenija i letuchest' izotopov pri ih prigotovlenii (temperatura - ne vyshe 1200 Degree-Sign C) privodit k neodnorodnoj'strukture takih blokov- Oni javljajutsja ne istinnym steklom, a ''steklovidnymi'' soedinenijami. Svojstva takih blokov i prochnost' lokalizacii v nih oskolochnyh izotopov sil'no zavisjat ot ih himicheskogo sostava (kolichestvo i priroda fljusa), uslovij prigotovlenija i posledujushhego hranenija. Povyshennaja temperatura, razvivajushhajasja v rezul'tate teplovydelenija vysokoradioaktivnyh blokov v mogil'nike, vyzyvaet himicheskie i fizicheskie processy v ih strukturah i sil'no vlijaet na prochnost' lokalizacii v nih oskolkov, osobenno s poverhnosti blokov. Vyshhelachivaemoet' izotopov iz steklovidnyh blokov, kak pravilo, vozrastaet posle ih progreva svyshe 400 Degree-Sign C. Otsjuda nezhelatel'no dopuskat' obrazovanija slishkom vysokih temperatur v mogil'nikah. Vysokaja plotnost' radiacii vysokoradioaktivnyh blokov takzhe-sil'no vlijaet na izmenenie struktury blokov, a sledovatel'no i prochnosti lokalizacii v nih oskolochnyh izotopov. Izmenenija takzhe idut v pervuju ochered' s poverhnosti pri kontakte s vneshnej sredoj (vozduh, voda). Vyshela- chivaemost' izotopov iz obluchaemyh blokov, kak pravilo, uvelichivaetsja. Jeksperimental'no ustanovlen povyshennyj vyhod radioaktivnyh izotopov s poverhnosti v gazovuju fazu dlja radioaktivnyh blokov. - Uchityvaja sovokupnost faktorov, dejstvujushhih na steklovidnye bloki v techenie dlitel'nogo vremeni, nuzhno putem special'nogo podbora ih himicheskogo sostava (fljusa) i''uslovij prigotovlenija,' obespechit' nadezhnuju lokalizaciju radioaktivnyh izotopov v zahoronennyh blokah; Osobyj interes v jetom otnoshenii predstavljaet primenenie dlja fljusovanija soedinenij titana. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Feb}
}