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The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion

Conference:

Abstract

Short-lived radioisotopes, especially those with a half-life of one hour or less, offer several advantages when used in activation analysis. These include more favourable sensitivities and selectivities (in some cases); shorter total processing times, giving the results more rapidly and often more cheaply; and, in non-destructive analyses, the possibility of re-activation for repeat determinations. The disadvantages associated with such short half-lives are gradually being overcome. Rapid radiochemical separation techniques have been developed so that processing can be completed without excessive radioactive decay. The availability of improved gamma-ray spectrometers coupled with modern data handling techniques has extended the range of non-destructive analyses, thus reducing the need for radiochemical purifications. The uses of short-lived radioisotopes in activation analyses are illustrated by reference to actual analytical problems encountered in the operation of an activation analysis service programme. Thus, in the determination of rubidium in caesium salts, the use of 1.0-min Rb{sup 86m} considerably reduces the build-up of matrix activity with little loss in sensitivity. In the determination of calcium in tissue, 8.8-min Ca{sup 49} gives quicker results since the irradiation time is much reduced and the decay curve can be followed for a reasonable number of half-lives in less than an hour. The  More>>
Authors:
Gibbons, D.; Simpson, H. [1] 
  1. Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Mar 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors, Vienna (Austria), 5-9 Nov 1962; Other Information: 21 refs., 4 tabs.; Related Information: In: Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors| 292 p.
Subject:
07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; AUTOMATION; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; CALCIUM; CALCIUM 49; CESIUM; COBALT; COBALT 58; COBALT 60; GAMMA SPECTROMETERS; HALF-LIFE; NICKEL; NUCLEAR DECAY; PURIFICATION; RADIOCHEMISTRY; RUBIDIUM; RUBIDIUM 86; SAMPLE CHANGERS; SELENIUM; SELENIUM 75; SELENIUM 77; SENSITIVITY
OSTI ID:
22173522
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M4263127979
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 95-108
Announcement Date:
Dec 13, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Gibbons, D., and Simpson, H. The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Gibbons, D., & Simpson, H. The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion. IAEA.
Gibbons, D., and Simpson, H. 1963. "The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22173522,
title = {The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion}
author = {Gibbons, D., and Simpson, H.}
abstractNote = {Short-lived radioisotopes, especially those with a half-life of one hour or less, offer several advantages when used in activation analysis. These include more favourable sensitivities and selectivities (in some cases); shorter total processing times, giving the results more rapidly and often more cheaply; and, in non-destructive analyses, the possibility of re-activation for repeat determinations. The disadvantages associated with such short half-lives are gradually being overcome. Rapid radiochemical separation techniques have been developed so that processing can be completed without excessive radioactive decay. The availability of improved gamma-ray spectrometers coupled with modern data handling techniques has extended the range of non-destructive analyses, thus reducing the need for radiochemical purifications. The uses of short-lived radioisotopes in activation analyses are illustrated by reference to actual analytical problems encountered in the operation of an activation analysis service programme. Thus, in the determination of rubidium in caesium salts, the use of 1.0-min Rb{sup 86m} considerably reduces the build-up of matrix activity with little loss in sensitivity. In the determination of calcium in tissue, 8.8-min Ca{sup 49} gives quicker results since the irradiation time is much reduced and the decay curve can be followed for a reasonable number of half-lives in less than an hour. The determination of selenium can be accomplished non-destructively in some biological materials with enhanced sensitivity using 17.5-s Se{sup 77m}. In complex materials, where a chemical separation is necessary, 18.6-min Se{sup 75} still gives a more favourable sensitivity than Se{sup 75}. In the determination of cobalt in the presence of nickel, long irradiations to produce Co{sup 60} produce interfering amounts of Co{sup 58} by the (n, p) reaction on nickel. Short irradiations, followed by measurement of 10.5-min Co{sup 60m}, reduce this interference considerably and also give an improved sensitivity. Several types of automatic units for use in counting short-lived radioisotopes are described, including photographic recording techniques, an automation sample changer and various programming units. (author) [French] Les radioisotopes a courte periode, notamment ceux dont la periode est egale ou inferieure a une heure, presentent divers avantages lorsqu'ils sont utilises pour l'analyse par activation. Parmi ces avantages on peut citer les suivants: sensibilite et selectivite (dans certains cas) plus favorables; temps de traitement total plus court, d'ou resultats plus rapides et souvent a meilleur compte; enfin, pour les analyses non destructives, possibilite de reactivation pour de nouvelles mesures. On surmonte progressivement les difficultes inherentes a des periodes aussi comtes. On a mis au point des methodes de separation radiochimique rapide telles que le traitement peut etre effectue sans qu'il se produise une desintegration radioactive excessive. L'emploi de spectrometres gamma perfectionnes et de methodes modernes de traitement des donnees a elargi le champ des analyses non destructives, reduisant ainsi la necessite de proceder a des purifications radiochimiques. Les auteurs illustrent les applications des radioisotopes a courte periode aux analyses par activation en decrivant les problemes d'analyse qu'ils ont eu effectivement a resoudre dans leur service d'analyse par activation. C'est ainsi que si l'on veut determiner la quantite de rubidium presente dans des sels de cesium, l'emploi de {sup 86m}Rb, dont la periode est de 1,0 min, reduit considerablement l'accumulation de l'activite matricielle pour une perte de sensibilite faible. Pour determiner le calcium present dans le tissu, c'est le {sup 49}Ca, dont la periode est de 8,8 min, qui donne les resultats le plus rapidement etant donne que la duree de l'irradiation est tres reduite et qu'en moins d'une heure on peut suivre la courbe de desintegration pour un nombre appreciable de periodes. La determination du selenium dans certaines matieres biologiques peut etre realisee par analyse non destructive avec une sensibilite accrue, a l'aide de Trade-Mark-Sign mSe, dont la periode est de 17,5 s. Dans le cas de matieres ou une separation chimique est necessaire, {sup 81}Se, dont la periode est de 18,6 min, donne une sensibilite meilleure encore que {sup 76}Se. Dans la determination du cobalt en presence du nickel, des irradiations prolongees jusqu'a ce que l'on obtienne du {sup 60}Co produisent des quantites interferentes de {sup 58}Co, dues a la reaction (n, p) sur le nickel. Cependant de breves irradiations, suivies de la mesure de {sup 60m}Co, dont la periode est de 10,5 min, reduisent sensiblement cette interference et ameliorent la sensibilite. Les auteurs decrivent plusieurs types d'appareils automatiques pouvant etre utilises pour le comptage des radioisotopes a courte periode ainsi que des methodes d'enregistrement photographique, un changeur d'echan' tillons automatique et divers ensembles de programmation. (author) [Spanish] Los radioisotopos de periodo corto (igual o inferior a 1 h) ofrecen diversas ventajas en lo que atane al analisis por activacion. Entre otras, un aumento de la sensibilidad y de la selectividad (en algunos casos); un tiempo total de tratamiento mas corto que proporciona resultados mas rapidos y con frecuencia mas economicos y, en el analisis no destructivo, la posibilidad de reactivar la muestra para repetir las determinaciones. Los inconvenientes inherentes a los periodos tan cortos se van superando paulatinamente. Ya no es esencial tener acceso directo a un reactor puesto que existen laboratorios generadores de neutrones. Ademas, se han desarrollado tecnicas de separacion radioquimica rapida que permiten acabar el tratamiento antes de que la desintegracion este demasiado avanzada. Con los espectrometros perfeccionados y las tecnicas modernas de manipulacion de datos se ha ampliado el campo de aplicacion de los analisis no destructivos, disminuyendo asi la necesidad de purificaciones radioquimicas. La memoria describe el empleo de radioisotopos de periodo corto en analisis por activacion citando problemas analiticos reales que se presentan en los servicios de analisis por activacion. Por ejemplo,empleando rubidio-86m de 1,0 min al determinar el rubidio en sales de cesio se reduce considerablemente el incremento de actividad de la matriz, en tanto que la sensibilidad disminuye poco. Al determinar el calcio en tejidos, el calcio-49 de 8,8 min permite obtener los resultados mas rapidamente, pues el tiempo de irradiacion se reduce aprecia- blemente y en menos de una hora se pueden observar las curvas de desintegracion correspondientes a un numero razonable de periodos de semi-desintegracion. El empleo de selenio-77m de 17,5 s permite determinar con mayor sensibilidad este elemento en algunas sustancias biologicas aplicando procedimientos no destructivos. En materiales complejos, donde es necesaria una separacion quimica, el selenio-81 de 18;6 min da una sensibilidad todavia mayor que la del selenio-75. En la determinacion del cobalto en sales de niquel, las irradiaciones largas paraobtenercobalto-60 se producen por la reaccion (n, p) con el niquel cantidades de cobalto-58 que perturban las determinaciones. Las irradiaciones cortas seguidas de la medicion del cobalto-60m de 10,5 min reducen considerablemente estas interferencias y mejoran tambien la sensibilidad. Se describen varios tipos de aparatos automaticos adecuados para el recuento de radioisotopos de periodo corto; tecnicas de registro fotografico,cambiamuestrasautomaticos y diversos equipos de programacion. (author) [Russian] Korotkozhivushhie radioizotopy, osobenno s periodom poluraspada, ravnym odnomu chasu ili menee, obladajut nekotorymi preimushhestvami pri ispol'zovanii v aktivacionnom analize. K chislu jetih preimushhestv otnosjatsja: bolee vysokaja chuvstvitel'nost' i izbiratel'nost' (v nekotoryh sluchajah) men'shaja prodolzhitel'nost' obrabotki, chto privodit k jekonomii vremeni i sredstv; vozmozhnost' povtornoj aktivacii dlja provedenija vtorichnogo opredelenija v sluchae nedestruktivnogo metoda analiza. Postepenno ustranjajutsja nedostatki, svjazannye s korotkim periodom poluraspada. Razrabotany metody bystrogo radiohimicheskogo razdelenija, v rezul'tate obrabotka mozhet byt' zavershena bez sushhestvennogo radioaktivnogo raspada. Nalichie sovershennyh gamma-spektrometrov vmeste s metodami obrabotki sovremennyh dannyh rasshirilo chislo nedestruktivnyh analiticheskih metodov, tem samym umen'shilas' neobhodimost' provedenija radiohimicheskoj ochistki. Ispol'zovanie korotkozhivushhih izotopov v aktivacionnom analize illjustriruetsja ssylkoj na nasushhnye problemy analiza, razreshenie kotoryh predusmotreno v osushhestvlenii programmy aktivacionnogo analiza. Tak, pri opredelenii rubidija v soljah cezija primenenie Rbseu s desjatiminutnym periodom poluraspada znachitel'no umen'shaet rost obshhej aktivnosti pri nebol'shoj potere chuvstvitel'nosti. Pri opredelenii kal'cija v tkanjah primenenie Sa s periodom poluraspada v,v minuty znachitel'no sokrashhaet prodolzhitel'nost' analiza, poskol'ku znachitel'no sokrashhaetsja vremja obluchenija i v techenie menee poluchasa mozhno prosledit' za krivoj raspada, ohvativ pri jetom dostatochnoe chislo periodov poluraspada. Mozhno provesti opredelenie selena v nekotoryh biologicheskih materialah bez razrushenija pri uvelichenii chuvstvitel'nosti za schet ispol'zovanija Se{sup 77} s periodom poluraspada 17,5sek. V sluchae slozhnyh materialov, dlja kotoryh neobhodimo himicheskoe razdelenie, ispol'zovanie See daet bolee vysokuju chuvstvitel'nost', chem Se{sup 79}. Pri opredelenii kobal'ta v soljah nikelja dlitel'noe obluchenie dlja poluchenija Sovo privodit k obrazovaniju meshajushhih kolichestv Co{sup 56} v rezul'tate reakcii (p, r). Kratkovremennoe obluchenie s posledujushhim izmereniem Sovom s periodom poluraspada 10,5 min privodit k znachitel'nomu umen'sheniju jetogo fona, a takzhe uluchshaet chuvstvitel'nost'. Opisyvajutsja nekotorye tipy avtomaticheskih priborov, ispol'zuemyh pri izmerenii aktivnosti korotkozhivushhih izotopov, vkljuchaja metody fotoregistracii, avtomaticheskaja smena obrazcov i razlichnye programmirujushhie ustrojstva. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Mar}
}