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Some Applications of Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life in the French Gas Industry; Quelques Applications des Radioelements a Periode Courte dans l'Industrie Gazoere Francaise; НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВИДЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВО ФРАНЦУЗСКОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ; Algunas Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periqdo Corto en la Industria Francesa del Gas

Abstract

For the purpose of keeping rubber jointings in old gas piping systems in good condition, certain hydrocarbides in very weak concentration are injected into the system in the form of aerosols. Bromonaphthalene hydrocarbide labelled with bromine-82 is added in order to determine the reach of the aerosols. The quantity of tracer recovered, on filter-paper discs distributed along the system, is determined by counting with an end-window counter. Four millicuries of bromonaphthalene sufficed to trace the hydrocarbide over a length of 7 km in a conduit 15 cm diam. Municipal gas authorities stipulate a minimum rate of air renewal in domestic premises. For the purpose of checking this rate, xenon-133 is diffused throughout the premises and the change in concentration is measured by means of a scintillation counter. Concentrations of the order of 0.5 mc/m{sup 3} are sufficient. The reproducibility of results is greatly superior to that obtained with conventional methods. The principle of isotopic methods of leak detection is well-known. In order to perfect these methods for industrial purposes, an experimental pipeline, 140 m in length and 25 cm diam., was installed underground at Saclay, at a depth of 1.10 m. This pipe has five experimental leakage points, with adjustable  More>>
Authors:
Tellier, C.; [1]  Courtois, G.; Gasnier, M. [2] 
  1. Gaz de France, Paris (France)
  2. Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)
Publication Date:
Mar 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors, Vienna (Austria), 5-9 Nov 1962; Other Information: 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.; Related Information: In: Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors Vol. I. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors| 448 p.
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; ACID CARBONATES; AEROSOLS; BROMINE 82; CALCITE; CLAYS; FILTERS; HALF-LIFE; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; METHYL BROMIDE; PIPELINES; SAND; SCINTILLATION COUNTERS; SCRAPERS; SODIUM 24; SOILS; XENON 133
OSTI ID:
22173509
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
French
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M4250127966
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 357-380
Announcement Date:
Dec 13, 2013

Citation Formats

Tellier, C., Courtois, G., and Gasnier, M. Some Applications of Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life in the French Gas Industry; Quelques Applications des Radioelements a Periode Courte dans l'Industrie Gazoere Francaise; НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВИДЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВО ФРАНЦУЗСКОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ; Algunas Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periqdo Corto en la Industria Francesa del Gas. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Tellier, C., Courtois, G., & Gasnier, M. Some Applications of Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life in the French Gas Industry; Quelques Applications des Radioelements a Periode Courte dans l'Industrie Gazoere Francaise; НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВИДЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВО ФРАНЦУЗСКОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ; Algunas Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periqdo Corto en la Industria Francesa del Gas. IAEA.
Tellier, C., Courtois, G., and Gasnier, M. 1963. "Some Applications of Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life in the French Gas Industry; Quelques Applications des Radioelements a Periode Courte dans l'Industrie Gazoere Francaise; НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВИДЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВО ФРАНЦУЗСКОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ; Algunas Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periqdo Corto en la Industria Francesa del Gas." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22173509,
title = {Some Applications of Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life in the French Gas Industry; Quelques Applications des Radioelements a Periode Courte dans l'Industrie Gazoere Francaise; НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВИДЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВО ФРАНЦУЗСКОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ; Algunas Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periqdo Corto en la Industria Francesa del Gas}
author = {Tellier, C., Courtois, G., and Gasnier, M.}
abstractNote = {For the purpose of keeping rubber jointings in old gas piping systems in good condition, certain hydrocarbides in very weak concentration are injected into the system in the form of aerosols. Bromonaphthalene hydrocarbide labelled with bromine-82 is added in order to determine the reach of the aerosols. The quantity of tracer recovered, on filter-paper discs distributed along the system, is determined by counting with an end-window counter. Four millicuries of bromonaphthalene sufficed to trace the hydrocarbide over a length of 7 km in a conduit 15 cm diam. Municipal gas authorities stipulate a minimum rate of air renewal in domestic premises. For the purpose of checking this rate, xenon-133 is diffused throughout the premises and the change in concentration is measured by means of a scintillation counter. Concentrations of the order of 0.5 mc/m{sup 3} are sufficient. The reproducibility of results is greatly superior to that obtained with conventional methods. The principle of isotopic methods of leak detection is well-known. In order to perfect these methods for industrial purposes, an experimental pipeline, 140 m in length and 25 cm diam., was installed underground at Saclay, at a depth of 1.10 m. This pipe has five experimental leakage points, with adjustable discharge, located in different kinds of soil (sand, chalk, clay, local Saclay earth). The first results obtained with this installation are described below. A description is given of pressure tests carried out to check water-leak-tightness prior to putting new conduits into service. Sodium-24 in the form of bicarbonate is used as tracer, and detection is done from inside the conduit by means of a scraper piston enclosing a self-contained Geiger-counter measuring unit and a magnetic recorder. The difficulties encountered in perfecting this apparatus are described. The graph obtained after decoding shows a very marked peak for every leak, the position of each being determined to within about 2 m. For easy detection, some 20 {mu}c must escape through the leak. To find leakages in mains, methyl bromide labelled with bromine-82, prepared on the spot and starting with Br{sup 82}NH{sub 4}, is used. After injection, the radioactive gas is uniformly mixed by circulation. Detection is performed from ground level by means of portable scintillation counters. The trials, which are continuing, have already made it possible to determine the activities required and the most favourable schedule for the detection of different types of leak. (author) [French] Pour assurer la preservation des joints de caoutchouc dans les vieilles canalisations de gaz, on y injecte sous forme d'aerosols certains hydrocarbures a tres faible concentration. Pour determiner la portee de ces aerosols, on ajoute a l'hydrocarbure du bromonaphtalene marque au brome-82. Ce traceur, recueilli sur des disques de papier filtre disposes le long de la canalisation, est dose par comptage au compteur cloche. Quatre millicuries de bromonaphtalene ont permis de suivre l'hydrocarbure sur 7 km de longueur dans une conduite de 15 cm de diametre. Le distributeur de gaz de ville impose un taux minimum de renouvellement d'air dans les locaux domestiques. Pour controler ce taux, on disperse dans le local du xenon-133 dont on mesure la concentration en fonction du temps au moyen d'un compteur a scintillation. Des concentrations de xenon de l'ordre de 0,5 mc/m{sup 3} conviennent. La reproductibilite des resultats est tres superieure a celle obtenue par l'emploi de methodes classiques. Pour mettre au point a un stade industriel des procedes de detection de fuite par radioisotopes dont le principe est deja connu, on a installe a Saclay une canalisation experimentale de 140 m de longueur et 25 cm de diametre, enterree a 1,10 m de profondeur. Cette conduite comporte cinq fuites experimentales, de debit reglable, situees dans des terrains de natures differentes (sable, craie, argile, terre de Saclay). Les auteurs decrivent ci-dessous les premiers resultats obtenus au moyen de cette installation. Pour controler Tetancheite lors des essais de pression precedant la mise en service d'une conduite de transport d'eau neuve, ils ont utilise le traceur sodium-24 sous forme de bicarbonate. La detection se fait depuis l'interieur de la conduite au moyen d*un piston racleur contenant un ensemble autonome de mesures a compteur de Geiger et un enregistreur magnetique. Ils decrivent les difficultes rencontrees lors de la mise au point de cet appareillage. Le diagramme obtenu apres decodage fait apparaitre un pic tres visible pour chaque fuite qui est deter- minee a environ deux metres. Pour une bonne detection, il faut qu*une vingtaine de microcuries sortent par la fuite. Pour rechercher les fuites de gaz dans des canalisations de distribution, on a utilise du bromure de me- thyle marque au brome-82, prepare sur le terrain a partir de {sup 82}BrNH{sub 4}. Apres injection, le gaz radioactif est homogeneise par circulation. La detection est faite depuis le niveau du sol au moyen de compteurs a scintillation portatifs. Les essais, qui se poursuivent, ont deja permis de determiner les activites a mettre en jeu et l'horaire le plus favorable pour la detection de differents types de fuites. (author) [Spanish] Para asegurar la preservacion de las juntas de goma de las tuberias viejas de gas, se inyectan concentraciones muy bajas de ciertos hidrocarburos en forma de aerosoles. Con objeto de determinar el alcance de dichos aerosoles, se anade al hidrocarburo bromonaftaleno marcado con bromo-82. Este indicador, que se recoge sobre discos de papel de filtro colocados a lo largo de la tuberia, se valoro por recuento en un contador de campana. Con 4 me de bromonaftaleno se ha podido seguir el hidrocarburo en una tuberia de 7 km de longitud y 15 cm de diametro. Las companias de gas imponen un indice minimo de renovacion del aire en los locales domesticos. Para controlar ese indice, en el local se dispersa xenon-133, cuya concentracion en funcion del tiempo se mide con un contador de centelleo. Resultan adecuadas concentraciones de xenon del orden de 0,5 mc/m{sup 3}. La reproductibilidad de los resultados es muy superior a la conseguida con los metodos' corrientes. Para elaborar tecnicas industriales de deteccion de escapes de gas mediante radioisotopos, cuyo principio es ya conocido, se ha instalado en el Centro de Saclay una canalizacion experimental de 140 m de longitud y 25 cm de diametro, enterrada a 1,10 m de profundidad. Esta tuberia tiene cinco escapes experimentales, de caudal graduable, situados en terrenos de naturaleza diferente (arenoso, cretaceo arcilloso, tierra de Saclay)' A continuacion se describen los primeros resultados obtenidos con esta instalacion. Se ha realizado un experimento para comprobar la estanqueidad durante los ensayos de presion que se efectuan antes de poner en servicio una tuberia nueva. Se ha utilizado como indicador el sodio-24 en forma de bicarbonato. La deteccion se efectua desde el interior de la canalizacion mediante un piston raspador que contiene un conjunto autonomo de medicion formado por un contador Geiger y un registrador magnetico. En la memoria se describen las dificultades que ha planteado la construccion de estos aparatos. En el diagrama obtenido despues de la transcripcion, puede observarse un maximo muy visible.por cada escape, que ha sido localizado con una precision del orden de 2 m. Para una buena deteccion, es necesario que por el escape salgan unos 20 {mu}c de compuesto radiactivo. Se han efectuado experimentos con la finalidad de localizar los escapes de gas en las canalizaciones de distribucion. Se ha empleado bromuro de metilo marcado con bromo-82, preparado in situ, a partir del {sup 82}BrNH{sub 4}. Una vez inyectado, el gas radiactivo se homogeneiza por circulacion. Los escapes se localizan a ras de tierra mediante contadores de centelleo portatiles. Los ensayos, que se prosiguen realizando, han permitido determinar las actividades que han de emplearse y el horario mas favorable para detectar los diferentes tipos de escape. (author) [Russian] V celjah obespechenija sohrannosti kauchukovyh muft v staryh gazovyh truboprovodah pribegajut k sprincevanii nekotorymi gidrokarbidami ochen' slaboj koncentracii v vide ajerozolej. Chtoby opredelit' stojkost' ajerozolej, k gidrokarbidu dobavljajut mechennyj bromom-62 bromonaftalin. Jetot indikator, sobrannyj na diskah fil'troval'noj bumagi, raspolozhennyh vdol' truboprovoda, otschitan s pomoshh'ju torcevogo schetchika. Chetyre millikjuri bromnaft lina pozvoljajut sledit' za sostojaniem gidrokarbida v trube diametrom v 15 sm na protjazhenii 7 km. Gorodskoj raspredelitel' gaza ustanavlivaet minimal'nyj kojefficient obnovlenija vozduha v zhilyh pomeshhenijah. V celjah kontrolja za jetim kojefficientom v pomeshhenii rasseivajut ksenon-133, koncentracija kotorogo izmerjaetsja s uchetom vremeni pri pomoshhi scintilljacionnogo schetchika. Schitajutsja sootvetstvujushhimi koncentracii ksenona porjadka 0,5 millikjuri/m3. Pri takom metode vosproizvodimost' rezul'tatov znachitel'no vyshe toj, kotoruju poluchajut pri primenenii obychnyh metodov. Chtoby razrabotat' promyshlennye metody obnaruzhenija utechki pri posredstve radioizotopov, principy kotoryh uzhe izvestny, v centre Sakle ulozhili na glubine 1,10 m jeksperimental'nuju trubu dlinoj v 140 m i diametrom v 25 sm. Na jetoj trube imelis' 5 jeksperimental'nyh otverstij dlja utechki s reguliruemym rashodom vody ili gaza, prichem otverstija nahodilis' v razlichnyh pochvah (pesok, mel, glina, pochva Sakle). Cel' opyta zakljuchalas' v tom, chtoby prokontrolirovat' pod davleniem germetichnost' podgotavlivaemoj dlja jekspluatacii novoj truby. V kachestve indikatora byl ispol'zovan natrij-24 v vide bikarbonata. Obnaruzhenie proizvodilos' na vnutrennej storone truby. Pri jetom byl ispol'zovan pribor, sostojashhij iz schetchika Gejgera i magnitnogo registratora. Opisyvajutsja trudnosti, kotorye vstretilis' pri ustanovke jetoj apparatury. Poluchennaja posle rasshifrovki diagramma pokazyvaet dovol'no zametnyj maksimum dlja kazhdogo sluchaja utechki, kotoraja opredeljaetsja priblizitel'no v 2 m. Dlja provedenija dostovernogo obnaruzhenija neobhodimo, chtoby s utechkoj uhodilo do 20 mkkjuri. Dlja obnaruzhenija utechki gaza v raspredelitel'nyh trubah ispol'zovali mechennyj bromom-62 bromistyj metil, prigotovlennyj na meste iz Br{sup 82}NH{sub 4}. Posle vpryskivanija radioaktivnyj gaz gomogenizirovalsja putem cirkuljacii. Obnaruzhenie proizvodilos' na urovne zemli pri pomoshhi portativnyh scintilljacionnyh schetchikov. Ispytanija, kotorye eshhe prodolzhajutsja, uzhe pozvolili opredelit' neobhodimuju dlja primenenija aktivnost' i naibolee blagoprijatnye uslovija dlja obnaruzhenija razlichnyh tipov utechki. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Mar}
}