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Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water--A critical review and analysis

Abstract

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proportion of N-DBP formation attributable to specific precursors was calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precursor concentrations are typically insufficient to account for observed N-DBP formation, except CNX and NDMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino acid precursors are easier to remove during water treatment than suggested by laboratory studies. - Abstract: In recent years research into the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water - including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAcAms), cyanogen halides (CNX) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) - has proliferated. This is partly due to their high reported toxicity of N-DBPs. In this review paper information about the formation yields of N-DBPs from model precursors, and about environmental precursor occurrence, has been employed to assess the amount of N-DBP formation that is attributable to known precursors. It was calculated that for HANs and HAcAms, the concentrations of known precursors - mainly free amino acids are insufficient to account for the observed concentrations of these N-DBP groups. However, at least in some waters, a significant proportion of CNX and NDMA formation can be explained by known precursors. Identified N-DBP precursors tend to be of low molecular weight and low electrostatic charge relative to bulk natural organic matter (NOM). This makes them  More>>
Authors:
Bond, Tom; [1]  Templeton, Michael R.; Graham, Nigel [1] 
  1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Oct 15, 2012
Product Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Hazardous Materials; Journal Volume: 235-236; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AMINO ACIDS; BY-PRODUCTS; DRINKING WATER; HALIDES; NITROSAMINES; ORGANIC MATTER; PRECURSOR; REMOVAL; STERILIZATION; TOXICITY; WATER TREATMENT
OSTI ID:
22161739
Country of Origin:
Netherlands
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: ISSN 0304-3894; CODEN: JHMAD9; Other: PII: S0304-3894(12)00724-8; TRN: NL13R2554116171
Availability:
Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.07.017
Submitting Site:
NLN
Size:
page(s) 1-16
Announcement Date:
Nov 28, 2013

Citation Formats

Bond, Tom, Templeton, Michael R., and Graham, Nigel. Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water--A critical review and analysis. Netherlands: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2012.07.017.
Bond, Tom, Templeton, Michael R., & Graham, Nigel. Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water--A critical review and analysis. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2012.07.017.
Bond, Tom, Templeton, Michael R., and Graham, Nigel. 2012. "Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water--A critical review and analysis." Netherlands. doi:10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2012.07.017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2012.07.017.
@misc{etde_22161739,
title = {Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water--A critical review and analysis}
author = {Bond, Tom, Templeton, Michael R., and Graham, Nigel}
abstractNote = {Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proportion of N-DBP formation attributable to specific precursors was calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precursor concentrations are typically insufficient to account for observed N-DBP formation, except CNX and NDMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino acid precursors are easier to remove during water treatment than suggested by laboratory studies. - Abstract: In recent years research into the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water - including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAcAms), cyanogen halides (CNX) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) - has proliferated. This is partly due to their high reported toxicity of N-DBPs. In this review paper information about the formation yields of N-DBPs from model precursors, and about environmental precursor occurrence, has been employed to assess the amount of N-DBP formation that is attributable to known precursors. It was calculated that for HANs and HAcAms, the concentrations of known precursors - mainly free amino acids are insufficient to account for the observed concentrations of these N-DBP groups. However, at least in some waters, a significant proportion of CNX and NDMA formation can be explained by known precursors. Identified N-DBP precursors tend to be of low molecular weight and low electrostatic charge relative to bulk natural organic matter (NOM). This makes them recalcitrant to removal by water treatment processes, notably coagulation, as confirmed by a number of bench-scale studies. However, amino acids have been found to be easier to remove during water treatment than would be suggested by the known molecular properties of the individual free amino acids.}
doi = {10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2012.07.017}
journal = {Journal of Hazardous Materials}
volume = {235-236}
journal type = {AC}
place = {Netherlands}
year = {2012}
month = {Oct}
}