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Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados

Conference:

Abstract

The normal modes of vibration of the pure semiconductors germanium and silicon have been extensively studied by means of coherent one-phonon scattering of slow neutrons from single-crystal specimens. The present paper describes similar experiments performed (i) on germanium heavily doped ({approx}0.1%) with (a) arsenic and (b) gallium, and also (ii) on silicon doped with phosphorus. In each case, control experiments were carried out on high- purity crystals. All measurements were performed with the triple-axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The elastic constant C{sub 44} for germanium is known to be appreciably dependent on the dopant concentration, and so certain transverse acoustic (TA) modes of long wavelength were studied to see if such effects persisted into the dispersive region. Other TA modes whose frequencies could be measured with high precision were also studied in both materials to check as sensitively as possible for small effects which might be ascribed to the existence of excess electrons or holes. A particularly careful study was made of modes having the following wave vectors (aq/2{pi}, where a is the cubic unit cell side): (i) in germanium, (1,0,0), (ii) in silicon, (0.85, 0.85, 0) and (0.3, 0, 0). Such normal modes might be expected  More>>
Authors:
Dolling, G. [1] 
  1. Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
Apr 15, 1965
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-58/7
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons, Bombay (India), 15-19 Dec 1964; Other Information: 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.; Related Information: In: Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons| 476 p.
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ACCURACY; ARSENIC; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRONS; GALLIUM; GERMANIUM; HOLES; INELASTIC SCATTERING; LINE WIDTHS; MONOCRYSTALS; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; PHONONS; PHOSPHORUS; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SILICON; SLOW NEUTRONS; SPECTROMETERS; WAVELENGTHS
OSTI ID:
22141804
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3370096405
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 249-259
Announcement Date:
Oct 24, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Dolling, G. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados. IAEA: N. p., 1965. Web.
Dolling, G. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados. IAEA.
Dolling, G. 1965. "Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22141804,
title = {Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados}
author = {Dolling, G.}
abstractNote = {The normal modes of vibration of the pure semiconductors germanium and silicon have been extensively studied by means of coherent one-phonon scattering of slow neutrons from single-crystal specimens. The present paper describes similar experiments performed (i) on germanium heavily doped ({approx}0.1%) with (a) arsenic and (b) gallium, and also (ii) on silicon doped with phosphorus. In each case, control experiments were carried out on high- purity crystals. All measurements were performed with the triple-axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The elastic constant C{sub 44} for germanium is known to be appreciably dependent on the dopant concentration, and so certain transverse acoustic (TA) modes of long wavelength were studied to see if such effects persisted into the dispersive region. Other TA modes whose frequencies could be measured with high precision were also studied in both materials to check as sensitively as possible for small effects which might be ascribed to the existence of excess electrons or holes. A particularly careful study was made of modes having the following wave vectors (aq/2{pi}, where a is the cubic unit cell side): (i) in germanium, (1,0,0), (ii) in silicon, (0.85, 0.85, 0) and (0.3, 0, 0). Such normal modes might be expected to show anomalous behaviour in the n-type crystals, since inter-valley scattering of electrons between adjacent conduction band minima would require their co-operation in order to conserve ''crystal momentum''. The results in all cases were negative, i. e. no differences in phonon frequencies or energy widths between pure and doped specimens were observed, within the experimental accuracy. In the most favourable cases, this (relative) accuracy is about 0.5% in frequency, rising to 2.0% for certain longitudinal optic modes in silicon. (author) [French] L'auteur a etudie, a l'aide d'experiences de diffusion coherente (a un phonon) de neutrons lents par des monocristaux, les modes normaux de vibration du germanium et du silicium purs. Le memoire decrit des experiences semblables sur 1. du germanium contenant une 'impurete'en assez forte proportion ( Tilde-Operator 0,1%), cette 'impurete' etant a) de l'arsenic, b) du gallium; et 2. du silicium contenant du phosphore. Dans chaque cas, des experiences de controle ont ete faites sur des cristaux d'une grande purete. Toutes les mesures ont ete effectuees a l'aide du spectrometre a cristal triaxial de Chalk River. On sait que la concentration de l' 'impurete'influe sensiblement sur la constante d'elasticite C{sub 44} du germanium; l'auteur a donc etudie certains modes acoustiques transversaux de grande longueur d'onde pour determiner si ces effets persistent dans la region de dispersion. Il a egalement etudie, dans l'un et l'autre de ces semi-conducteurs, d'autres modes acoustiques transversaux dont les frequences peuvent Etre mesurees avec une grande precision, afin de verifier avec la plus grande sensibilite possible les effets mineurs pouvant etre attribues a l'existence d'electrons ou de trous en exces. Un examen particulierement approfondi a ete effectue sur les modes ayant les vecteurs d'onde suivants (aq/2{pi}, ou a est la longueur de l'arete d'une cellule cubique unitaire): l. dans le germanium (1,0,0); 2. dans le silicium (0, 85, 0,85, 0) et (0,3, 0,0). On pouvait s'attendre que ces modes normaux presentent un comportement anormal dans les cristaux de type n, etant donne que la diffusion des electrons entre les minima des bandes de conduction adjacentes exigerait leur intervention de maniere a assurer la conservation de la 'quantite de mouvement du cristal'. Dans tous les cas, les resultats obtenus ont ete negatifs, c'est-a-dire qu'on n'a observe, dans les limites de la precision experimentale, aucune difference de frequences de phonons ou de largeurs d'energie entre les echantillons purs et les echantillons contenant une 'impurete' . Dans Ies cas les plus favorables, cette precision (relative) est d'environ 0,5% pour la frequence et elle atteint 2, 0 Degree-Sign jo pour certains modes optiques longitudinaux dans le silicium. (author) [Spanish] Los modos normales de vibracion de los semiconductores germanio y silicio puros se han estudiado ampliamente por dispersion monofononica coherente de neutrones lentos en muestras monocristalinas. En la memoria se describen experimentos analogos realizados utilizando: 1) germanio deliberadamente impurificado ( Tilde-Operator 0,1%) con a) arsenico y b) galio; 2) silicio impurificado con fosforo. Se realizaron siempre experimentos testigo con cristales de elevada pureza. Todas las mediciones se llevaron a cabo con el espectrometro triaxial de cristal instalado en los Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Como es sabido, la constante elastica C{sub 44}, correspondiente al germanio depende sensiblemente de la concentracion de la impureza* por lo que se estudiaron ciertos modos acusticos transversales de onda larga para comprobar si tales efectos persistian en la region dispersiva. En ambos materiales se estudiaron tambien otros modos acusticos transversales de frecuencia susceptible de medirse con gran precision, a fin de observar con el mayor detenimiento posible los leves efectos que pudiera atribuirse a la existencia de electrones o vacantes en exceso. Se estudiaron con particular cuidado los modos que tienen los vectores de onda (aq/2{pi}, en donde a es la arista de la celdilla unidad cubica): a) en el germanio (1,0,0), y b) en el silicio (0, 85, 0,85, 0) y (0,3, 0, 0). Cabria esperar que estos modos normales tuviesen un comportamiento anomalo en los cristales de tipo n, pues la dispersion intervalle de electrones entre minimos adyacentes de bandas de conduccion exigiria su cooperacion para conservar . Los resultados fueron negativos en todos los casos, esto es, no se observo diferencia alguna de frecuencias fononicas ni de amplitudes de energia entre muestras puras e impurificadas, dentro del margen de error experimental. En los casos mas favorables, esta exactitud (relativa) alcanza al 0,5% del valor de la frecuencia, y llega hasta 2,0 Degree-Sign Inverted-Exclamation-Mark o tratandose de algunos modos opticos longitudinales en el silicio. (author) [Russian] Normal'nye formy kolebanija chistyh poluprovodnikov germanija i kremnija shiroko izuchalis' s pomoshh'ju kogerentnogo odnofononnogo rassejanija medlenny nejtronov na mono-kristallicheskih obrazcah. V dannom doklade opisyvajutsja analogichnye jeksperimenty, vypolnennye 1) s germaniem s bol'shoj prisadkoj ( Tilde-Operator 0,1%) a) mysh'jaka i '') galija, a takzhe 2) s kremniem s fosfornoj prisadkoj. V kazhdom sluchae kontrol'nye jeksperimenty provodilis' na kristallah vysokoj chistoty. Vse izmerenija vypolnjalis' na trehosnom kristallicheskom spektrometre v laboratorijah v Chok- River. Kak izvestno, postojannaja uprugosti C{sub 44} dlja germanija v znachitel'noj stepeni zavisit ot koncentracii prisadki, i pojetomu nekotorye poperechnye akusticheskie koljobanija (TA) s bol'shoj dlinoj volny izuchalis' s cel'ju vyjasnenija nalichija takih jeffektov v dispergirujushhej oblasti. Drugie TA kolebanija, chastoty kotoryh mozhno izmerjat' s vysokoj stepen'ju tochnosti, takzhe izuchalis' v oboih materialah s cel'ju vozmozhno bolee tochnoj proverki nebol'shih jeffektov, kotorye mozhno bylo by pripisat' nalichiju izbytka jelektronov ili dyrok. Osobenno tshhatel'no izuchalis' kolebanija so sledujushhimi volnovymi vektorami (aq/2{pi}, gde a -storona kubicheskoj jelementarnoj jachejki): 1) v germanii (1; 0; 0); 2) v kremnii (0.85; 0.85; 0) i (0.3; 0;0). Mozhno bylo by predpolozhit', chto takie normal'nye kolebanija projavjat neobychnye cherty v kristallah n-nogo tipa, poskol'ku dlja rassejanija jelektronov mezhdu sosednimi minimumami zon provodimosti potrebovalos' by vzaimodejstvie dlja sohranenija {sup i}mpul'sa kristalla{sup .} Rezul'taty vo vseh sluchajah byli otricatel'nymi, t.e. v predelah tochnosti jeksperimentov ne nabljudalos' nikakih razlichij chastot fononov ili jenergeticheskih shirin mezhdu chistymi obrazcami i obrazcami s prisadkoj. V naibolee blagoprijatnyh sluchajah takaja (otnositel'naja) tochnost' sostavljaet priblizitel'no 0,5% po chastote, s povysheniem do 2,0% dlja nekotoryh prodol'nyh opticheskih kolebanij v kremnii. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1965}
month = {Apr}
}