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Radiochemical Determination of Plutonium for Radiological Purposes; Determination Radiochimique du Plutonium a des Fins Radiologiques; Radiokhimicheskoe opredelenie plutoniya dlya tselej radiologii; Determinacion Radioquimica del Plutonio con Fines Radiologicos

Conference:

Abstract

In this paper the procedures that have been and are currently being used for the determination of micro- microgram quantities of plutonium in biological and environmental samples are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on excretion analysis. Expected urinary excretion rates have been calculated, using assumed levels of plutonium deposition, so that the analytical sensitivities of various procedures can be compared. Complete dissolution of excreta, soil, bone, tissue and vegetation are described with emphasis on avoiding the formation of refractory compounds of plutonium which are soluble with difficulty. Analytical methods for plutonium analysis of these materials are reviewed and include co-precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, ion exchange chromatography and the use of plutonium isotopes for yield determinations by means of alpha energy analysis. Using counting statistics, comparisons are made of the sensitivities available in low-level alpha counting, using ionization chambers,- proportional counters, diode counters, and nuclear track emulsions. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by alpha spectrometry, nuclear emulsion techniques, and liquid scintillation counting are included. The use of non-isotopic carriers as a source of extraneous activity and the environmental levels of plutonium recently encountered around the world are discussed in connection with ''blank'' samples. Two possibilities are considered for future methods of plutonium analysis  More>>
Authors:
Nielsen, J. M.; Beasley, T. M. [1] 
  1. Chemical Laboratory, Hanford Laboratories, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Oct 15, 1964
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-52/37
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens, Heidelberg (Germany), 11-16 May 1964; Other Information: 53 refs.; Related Information: In: Assessment of Radioactivity in Man. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens in Man| 408 p.
Subject:
38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; ALPHA SPECTROSCOPY; BONE TISSUES; COPRECIPITATION; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS; EVALUATION; FISSION FRAGMENTS; ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; NUCLEAR EMULSIONS; PERSONNEL MONITORING; PLUTONIUM; PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES; PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS; RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS; SCINTILLATION COUNTING; SOLVENT EXTRACTION
OSTI ID:
22134019
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3230089064
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 245-260
Announcement Date:
Sep 26, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Nielsen, J. M., and Beasley, T. M. Radiochemical Determination of Plutonium for Radiological Purposes; Determination Radiochimique du Plutonium a des Fins Radiologiques; Radiokhimicheskoe opredelenie plutoniya dlya tselej radiologii; Determinacion Radioquimica del Plutonio con Fines Radiologicos. IAEA: N. p., 1964. Web.
Nielsen, J. M., & Beasley, T. M. Radiochemical Determination of Plutonium for Radiological Purposes; Determination Radiochimique du Plutonium a des Fins Radiologiques; Radiokhimicheskoe opredelenie plutoniya dlya tselej radiologii; Determinacion Radioquimica del Plutonio con Fines Radiologicos. IAEA.
Nielsen, J. M., and Beasley, T. M. 1964. "Radiochemical Determination of Plutonium for Radiological Purposes; Determination Radiochimique du Plutonium a des Fins Radiologiques; Radiokhimicheskoe opredelenie plutoniya dlya tselej radiologii; Determinacion Radioquimica del Plutonio con Fines Radiologicos." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22134019,
title = {Radiochemical Determination of Plutonium for Radiological Purposes; Determination Radiochimique du Plutonium a des Fins Radiologiques; Radiokhimicheskoe opredelenie plutoniya dlya tselej radiologii; Determinacion Radioquimica del Plutonio con Fines Radiologicos}
author = {Nielsen, J. M., and Beasley, T. M.}
abstractNote = {In this paper the procedures that have been and are currently being used for the determination of micro- microgram quantities of plutonium in biological and environmental samples are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on excretion analysis. Expected urinary excretion rates have been calculated, using assumed levels of plutonium deposition, so that the analytical sensitivities of various procedures can be compared. Complete dissolution of excreta, soil, bone, tissue and vegetation are described with emphasis on avoiding the formation of refractory compounds of plutonium which are soluble with difficulty. Analytical methods for plutonium analysis of these materials are reviewed and include co-precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, ion exchange chromatography and the use of plutonium isotopes for yield determinations by means of alpha energy analysis. Using counting statistics, comparisons are made of the sensitivities available in low-level alpha counting, using ionization chambers,- proportional counters, diode counters, and nuclear track emulsions. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by alpha spectrometry, nuclear emulsion techniques, and liquid scintillation counting are included. The use of non-isotopic carriers as a source of extraneous activity and the environmental levels of plutonium recently encountered around the world are discussed in connection with ''blank'' samples. Two possibilities are considered for future methods of plutonium analysis where increased sensitivity is required. These are activation analysis and fission fragment counting. (author) [French] Les auteurs examinent l'ensemble des methodes que l'on a employees et que Ton emploie actuellement pour evaluer les quantites de plutonium de l'ordre du picogramme presentes dans des echantillons biologiques et mesologiques. Ils insistent particulierement sur l'analyse des excreta. Ils ont calcule des taux d'elimination urinaire probables a partir de concentrations de plutonium theoriques, de maniere a pouvoir comparer'la sensibilite de differentes methodes d'analyse. Les auteurs decrivent la dissolution complete d'echantillons d'excreta, de sols, d'os, de tissus et de vegetaux en insistant sur la necessite d'eviter la formation de composes refractaires du plutonium qui sont difficilement solubles. Ils examinent les methodes analytiques employees pour doser le plutonium contenu dans ces substances, notamment la coprecipitation, l'extraction par partage) la chromato- graphie sur echangeurs d'ions et l'emploi d'isotopes du plutonium pour la determination des quantites produites par analyse de l'energie des particules alpha. A l'aide de statistiques du comptage, les auteurs comparent les sensibilites obtenues dans le comptage de particules alpha de faible energie au moyen de chambres d'ionisation, de compteurs proportionnels, de compteurs a diode et d'emulsions nucleaires. L'analyse isotopique du plutonium par spectrometrie alpha, les techniques des emulsions nucleaires et le comptage par scintillateur liquide sont traites dans le memoire. A propos des echantillons completement inactifs, les auteurs etudient l'emploi d'entraineurs non isotopiques en tant que source d'activite etrangere ainsi que les degres de contamination du milieu ambiant par du plutonium recemment releves dans le monde entier. Ils examinent deux possibilites comme futures methodes de dosage du plutonium, lorsqu'on veut obtenir une plus grande sensibilite: il s'agit de l'analyse par activation et du comptage des fragments de fission. (author) [Spanish] Los autores examinan los procedimientos utilizados anteriormente y en la actualidad para la determinacion de cantidades de plutonio del orden de los micro-microgramos en muestras biologicas y del medio ambiente. Estudian especialmente el analisis de las excreta. Han calculado los indices de excrecion urinaria probables adoptando valores arbitrarios para el deposito de plutonio, de una manera que facilita la comparacion de las sensibilidades analiticas de los distintos procedimientos. Los autores describen procedimiebtos para disolver completamente muestras de excreta, suelos, huesos, tejidos y plantas, insistiendo en la.necesidad de evitar la formacion de compuestos refractarios de plutonio, dificiles de disolver. Exponen metodos analiticos para efectuar el analisis del plutonio en esos materiales e incluyen la coprecipitacion, la extraccion liquido-liquido, la cromatografia de intercambio ionico y el empleo de los isotopos del plutonio para las determinaciones del rendimiento por analisis de la energia alfa. Recurriendo a razonamientos estadisticos, comparan las sensibilidades que es posible alcanzar en el recuento de particulas alfa de baja energia utilizando camaras de ionizacion, contadores proporcionales, contadores de diodo y emulsiones nucleares. Tambien mencionan el analisis isotopico del plutonio mediante la espectrometria alfa, las tecnicas de emulsion nuclear y el recuento por centelleo liquido. . Los autores tratan asimismo del empleo de los portadores no isotopicos como fuentes de actividad extrana y senalan los valores de la actividad del plutonio en el medio ambiente registrados recientemente en diferentes partes del mundo, relacionandolos con el empleo de muestras 'en blanco'. Indican dos metodos que podrian utilizarse para el analisis del plutonio cuando se requiera una sensibilidad mayor. Se trata del analisis por activacion y del recuento de los fragmentos de fision. (author) [Russian] V stat'e rassmatrivajutsja metody, kotorye ispol'zovalis' i ispol'zujutsja v nastojashhee vremja pri opredelenii mikromikrokolichestv plutonija v biologicheskih obrazcah i obrazcah iz okruzhajushhej sredy. Osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja analizam vydelenij. Predpolagaemaja skorost' vydelenija s mochoj vyschityvalas' na osnove predpolagaemyh urovnej otlozhenija plutonija s tem, chtoby mozhno bylo sravnit' analiticheskuju chuvstvitel'nost' razlichnyh metodov. Daetsja opisanie metodov polnogo rastvorenija vydelenij, pochvy, kostej, tkanej i rastitel'nosti, prichem podcherkivaetsja neobhodimost' izbegat' obrazovanija tugoplavkih plohorastvorimyh soedinenij plutonija. Rassmatrivajutsja analiticheskie metody opredelenija plutonija v jetih materialah, kotorye vkljuchajut sovmestnoe osazhdenie, jekstragirovanie zhidkost'-zhidkost', ionno-obmennuju hromatografiju i ispol'zovanie izotopov plutonija dlja konechnyh opredelenij posredstvom analizov al'fa-jenergii. Posredstvom schetno-vychislitel'noj statistiki proizvedeno sravnenie imejushhejsja chuvstvitel'nosti v vychislenii nizkih urovnej al'fa-scheta s pomoshh'ju ionizacionnoj kamery, proporcional'nyh schetchikov, diodnyh schetchikov i jemul'sii s jadernoj metkoj. Metody izotopnogo analiza plutonija s pomoshh'ju al'fa-spektrometrii, metodov jadernoj jemul'sii i zhidkostnyh scintil- ljacionnyh schetchikov takzhe vkljucheny v jetot dokument. Ispol'zovanie neizotopnyh nositelej v kachestve istochnika postoronnej aktivnosti i urovni soderzhanija plutonija v okruzhajushhej srede, nedavno obnaruzhennye na zemnom share, obsuzhdajutsja v svjazi s kontrol'nymi obrazcami. Dlja budushhih metodov analiza plutonija rassmatrivajutsja dve vozmozhnosti, gde trebuetsja povyshennaja chuvstvitel'nost'. Jetimi vozmozhnostjami javljajutsja aktivacionnyj analiz i podschet produktov raspada. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1964}
month = {Oct}
}