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Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire

Conference:

Abstract

The distribution of malathion (0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a forested area of east-central Ohio was studied during the summer of 1962. This broad-spectrum insecticide was selected for study on the basis of its increased use in the control of many important forest insect pests in deciduous and coniferous forests of the United States. The need for greater knowledge of the ecology of a forested area, coupled with the need for a more complete understanding of the effects of an insecticide on the fauna, provided the unique possibility of studying the problems simultaneously through the utilization of an isotope-labelled insecticide. S{sup 35} was selected because of its low beta energy (0.167 MeV) and the adequate half-life (87.1 d). Preliminary one-tenth-acre plot studies in the summer of 1961 provided us with potential application rates in terms of total radiation and also allowed the development of sample preparation technique. A faunal survey of two 20-acre watersheds was conducted during the summer of 1961. In May of 1962, one of the watersheds was treated with an application of 2 lb technical-grade malathion per acre in a formulation of xylene, triton X-155 emulsifier and water. Themalathion was synthesized with S{sup 35} by the  More>>
Authors:
Giles, Jr., R. H.; Peterle, T. J. [1] 
  1. Ohio Co-Operative Wildlife Research Unit, Columbus, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Sep 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, Athens (Greece), 22-26 Apr 1963; Other Information: 10 figs., 6 tabs., 25 refs.; Related Information: In: Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests| 526 p.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BARK; CANOPIES; ECOSYSTEMS; FORESTS; HELIUM; INSECTS; LABELLING; MALATHION; METABOLITES; PEST CONTROL; SPRAYS; SULFUR 35; TRITONS; XYLENES
OSTI ID:
22127658
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13R0274082737
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 55-84
Announcement Date:
Sep 12, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Giles, Jr., R. H., and Peterle, T. J. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Giles, Jr., R. H., & Peterle, T. J. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire. IAEA.
Giles, Jr., R. H., and Peterle, T. J. 1963. "Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22127658,
title = {Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire}
author = {Giles, Jr., R. H., and Peterle, T. J.}
abstractNote = {The distribution of malathion (0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a forested area of east-central Ohio was studied during the summer of 1962. This broad-spectrum insecticide was selected for study on the basis of its increased use in the control of many important forest insect pests in deciduous and coniferous forests of the United States. The need for greater knowledge of the ecology of a forested area, coupled with the need for a more complete understanding of the effects of an insecticide on the fauna, provided the unique possibility of studying the problems simultaneously through the utilization of an isotope-labelled insecticide. S{sup 35} was selected because of its low beta energy (0.167 MeV) and the adequate half-life (87.1 d). Preliminary one-tenth-acre plot studies in the summer of 1961 provided us with potential application rates in terms of total radiation and also allowed the development of sample preparation technique. A faunal survey of two 20-acre watersheds was conducted during the summer of 1961. In May of 1962, one of the watersheds was treated with an application of 2 lb technical-grade malathion per acre in a formulation of xylene, triton X-155 emulsifier and water. Themalathion was synthesized with S{sup 35} by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, England. 1 c of activity was aerially applied to one of the 20-acre forested areas on 15 May and 25 May 1962. The specific activity of the synthesized malathion was 17. 5 m c/mM. The distribution of components of the aerial spray within the forest was measured. Electrically-operated air samplers provided estimates of drift off the area; helium-filled balloons bearing frosted-glass discs measured above-canopy application; glass discs suspended vertically as well as bark sampler, measured quantities settling out at different layers in the canopy; glass discs and spotting-enamel paper not only allowed a measure of horizontal distribution but a check of a standard spray-distribution detection device. Soil samples and monitoring of marked stakes allowed sub-surface distribution studies. Samples of water from the intermittent streams, insects, mammals, reptiles and birds indicated the initial and subsequent distribution of the insecticide and its metabolites in the ecosystem. Population studies of the faunal system continued throughout the summers of 1961-62 and a limited amount of survey data will be collected in the summer of 1963. Preliminary results indicate that the insect populations returned to normal in about three weeks and there was no detectable effect on the densities of the vertebrate animals on the sprayed area. (author) [French] La distribution de malathion (0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate de diethyl mercaptosuccinate) dans une zone forestiere du centre-est de l'Ohio a ete etudiee au cours de l'ete 1962. Cet insecticide a gamme d'utilisations etendue a ete choisi comme sujet d'etude a cause de son emploi croissant dans la lutte contre de nombreux insectes nuisibles aux forets de feuillus et de coniferes des Etats-Unis. La concomitance du besoin d'une connaissance plus complete de l'ecologie d'une zone forestiere et de la necessite d'une comprehension plus approfondie des effets d'un insecticide sur la faune a donne une occasion unique d'etudier les problemes simultanement grace a l'utilisation d'un insecticide marque avec un radioisotope. On a choisi {sup 35}S a cause de sa faible energie beta (0,167 MeV) et de sa periode (87,1 j). Des etudes preliminaires portant sur des parcelles de quatre ares, au cours de l'ete 1961, ont permis aux auteurs de fixer des doses d'application en fonction du rayonnement total et ont permis aussi la mise au point de techniques de preparation d'echantillons. Une etude de la faune de deux secteurs de huit hectares, dans deux bassins differents, a ete faite au cours de l'ete 1961. En mai 1962, un de ces secteurs a ete traite a raison de 2,25 kg par hectare de malathion commercial dans une formule comprenant du xylene, du triton X-155 comme emulsifiant et de l'eau. Le malathion avait ete marque avec {sup 35}S par le Radiochemical Centre d'Amersham (Royaume-Uni). On a pulverise par avion une quantite correspondant a une activite de 1 c dans l'un des deux secteurs forestiers de huit hectares, les 15 et 25 mai 1962. L'activite specifique du malathion marque etait de 17,5 m c/m M. On a mesure la distribution des composants de la pulverisation aerienne dans la foret. Des echantillonneurs d'air electriques ont permis d'estimer les quantites emportees hors du secteur d'experience; des ballons d'helium portant des disques de verre depoli ont permis de mesurer la quantite en suspension au-dessus de la frondaison; des disques de verre suspendus verticalement et des echantillons d'ecorces ont permis de mesurer les quantites a diverses hauteurs de la frondaison; des disques de verre et du papier pour analyse a la touche ont permis, non seulement de mesurer la distribution horizontale, mais aussi, de controler un appareil courant de detection de la distribution des produits pulverises. Des echantillons du sol et des pieux marques ont permis d'etudier la distribution au-dessous de la surface. Des echantillons d'eau provenant de cours d'eau intermittents,'des insectes, des mammiferes, des reptiles et des oiseaux ont indique la distribution initiale et ulterieure de l'insecticide et de ses metabolites dans l'ensemble ecologique. Des etudes de la faune ont continue pendant les etes 1961 et 1962 et certaines observations seront encore faites au cours de l'ete 1963. Les resultats preliminaires indiquent que les populations d'insectes sont revenues a la normale au bout d'environ trois semaines et qu'il n'y a pas eu d'effets decelables sur la densite des vertebres dans la surface traitee. (author) [Spanish] Durante el verano de 1962 se estudio la distribucion del malation (0,0-dimetil ditiofosfato del mercaprosuccinato de dietilo) en una zona forestal de la region centro-oriental de Ohio (Estados Unidos). Se eligio este insecticida de espectro tan amplio su empleo se generaliza cada vez mas para combatir muchas plagas de insectos importantes en los bosques de coniferas y de arboles de hoja caediza de los Estados Unidos. El empleo de un insecticida marcado con un isotopo radiactivo permite estudiar simultaneamente la ecologia de una zona forestal y los efectos del insecticida sobre la fauna. Los autores de la memoria eligieron el. {sup 35}S debido a su reducida energia beta (0,167 MeV) y a que su periodo de semidesintegracion (87,1 d) resulta conveniente. Los estudios preliminares realizados en verano de 1961 en parcelas de cuatro areas permitieron determinar las dosis de aplicacion posibles en funcion de la irradiacion total, y establecer una tecnica de preparacion de las muestras. En el mismo verano se estudio la fauna en dos vertientes de ocho hectareas. En mayo de 1962 una de ellas fue tratada con cinco libras de malation de calidad comercial por hectarea, disuelto en xilol y emulsionado en agua con Triton X-155. El malation marcado con {sup 35}S fue sintetizado en el Radio Chemical Centre de Amersham (Gran Bretana). El 15 y el 25 de mayo de 1962 se aplico desde el aire un curie de actividad a una de las vertientes de ocho hectareas. La actividad especifica del malation era de 17,5 mc/mM. Los autores midieron la distribucion de los componentes del insecticida pulverizado sobre el bosque. Aparatos electricos de toma de muestras de aire permitieron calcular la parte del insecticida que paso a las zonas colindantes; el aplicado por encima del nivel de las copas de los arboles se midio con globos de helio portadores de discos de vidrio esmerilado; las cantidades depositadas a diversos niveles del follaje se midieron con discos de vidrio colgados verticalmente y con muestras de corteza; la distribucion horizontal se determino con discos de vidrio y papel especial, que sirvieron tambien para ensayar un dispositivo destinado a determinar la distribucion del insecticida pulverizado. Por toma de muestras de tierra y recuento de zonas delimitadas se estudio la distribucion bajo la superficie del suelo. Las muestras de agua tomadas en arroyos intermitentes y los ensayos realizados con insectos, mamiferos, reptiles y aves indicaron la distribucion inicial y subsiguiente del insecticida y sus metabolitos en el sistema ecologico. Los estudios de la poblacion animal siguieron durante los veranos de 1961 y 1962; en el verano de 1963 se reuniran todavia algunos datos. Los resultados preliminares indican que la poblacion de insectos vuelve a la normalidad unas tres semanas despues del tratamiento; no se observo efecto alguno en los animales vertebrados de la zona tratada. (author) [Russian] Raspredelenie malationa (0,0-dimetilditiofosfat diehtilmerkaptoyantarnoj kisloty) v lesnom massive vostochnoj chasti Tsentral'nogo Ogajo, SSHA, izuchalos' vesnoj 1962 goda. Ehtot insektitsid shirokogo dejstviya byl vybran dlya izucheniya v svyazi s ego vozrastayushchej rol'yu v bor'be s mnogimi vazhnymi nasekokymi-vreditelyami listvennykh i khvojnykh lesov Soedinennykh Shtatov. Dlya rasshireniya znanij po ehkologii lesnykh massivov, a takzhe bolee polnogo ponimaniya vliyaniya insektitsidov na faunu byla ispol'zovana svoeobraznaya vozmozhnost' izucheniya ehtikh problem odnovremenno posredstvom primeneniya mechennykh izotopami insektitsidov. S{sup 35} byla vybrana vvidu nizkoj ehnergii beta-izlucheniya (0,167 Mehv) i dostatochno korotkogo perioda poluraspada (87,1 dnya). Predvaritel'noe issledovanie uchastka zemli 0,1 akra letom 1961 goda pokazalo stepen' vozmozhnogo' primeneniya v usloviyakh obshchej radiatsii, a takzhe vozmozhnost' razrabotat' podgotovitel'nye metody dlya vzyatiya prob. Letom 1961 goda byl proveden obzor fauny dvukh bassejnov reki ploshchad'yu v 20 akrov kazhdyj. V mae 1962 goda odin iz nikh byl obrabotan tekhnicheski-chistym malationom v kolichestve 2 funtov na 1 akr v smesi s ksilolom, tritonom X-155 (ehmul'gator) i vodoj. Malation, mechennyj S{sup 35}, byl sintezirovan v Velikobritanii v Radiokhimicheskom tsentre EHmershem. Malation obshchej aktivnost'yu 1 kyuri byl raspylen na lesnom massive 20 akrov 15 i 20 maya 1962 goda. Spetsificheskaya aktivnost' sintezirovannogo malationa byla 17,5 millikyuri na millimol'. Izmeryalos' raspredelenie komponentov pri vozdushnom raspylenii v predelakh lesnogo massiva. S pomoshch'yu ehlektricheski upravlyaemykh probootbornikov vozdukha proizvodilas' otsenka granits zony raspyleniya; s pomoshch'yu napolnennykh geliem ballonov s okhlazhdaemymi steklyannymi diskami izmeryalos' osazhdenie nad kronoj; s pomoshch'yu vertikal'no ustanovlennykh steklyannykh diskov, a takzhe obraztsov kory izmeryalis' kolichestva osazhdayushchegosya malationa v razlichnykh gorizontal'nykh sloyakh lesa; s pomoshch'yu steklyannykh diskov i spetsial'noj bumagi s ehmalievym vkrapleniem mozhno bylo izmeryat' gorizontal'noe raspredelenie i proveryat' rabotu standartnogo ustrojstva dlya izucheniya raspredeleniya pri raspylenii. Izmerenie obraztsov pochv i markirovannykh vekh pozvolyalo izuchit' podpoverkhnostnoe raspredelenie. Po obraztsam vody, vzyatym iz ruch'ev, nasekomym, mlekopitayushchim, presmykayushchimsya i ptitsam mozhno bylo sudit' o pervonachal'nom i posleduyushchem raspredelenii insektitsida i ego produktov obmena v ehkologicheskoj sisteme. Izuchenie obitatelej lesa provodilos' v letnee vremya na protyazhenii 1961 - 1962 godov,i nekotoroe kolichestvo obzornykh dannykh budet polucheno letom 1963 goda. Predvaritel'nye rezul'taty ukazyvayut, chto kolichestvo nasekomykh vosstanovitsya do normal'nogo urovnya primerno cherez tri nedeli i chto ne nablyudaetsya zametnogo vozdejstviya na kolichestvo pozvonochnykh zhivotnykh, obitayushchikh v zonf raspyleniya. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Sep}
}