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Tracer Experiments on Food Exchange in Ants and Termites; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude de la trophallaxis chez les fourmis et les termites; Izuchenie s pomoshch'yu indikatorov obmena pishchej u murav'ev i termitov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para estudiar la trofalaxia en las hormigas y los termites

Conference:

Abstract

One of the most important aspects of social insects, such as ants, honey-bees and termites, is their tendency to trophallactic food exchanges, which can be studied well by the use of labelled food. In comparative studies we found the most rapid rate of exchange in honey-bees, but extreme differences were observed among the different sub-families of ants, which must be taken in consideration in case of tracer field-experiments. The greatest tendency towards trophallactic exchanges was found in the sub-family Camponotinae. Ants of the genus Formica, especially Formica polyctena Foerst, and related polygenous and polycalous species known to be imoortant factors in die preventive biological control of forest insect pests, were intensively analysed. It was found that the rate of food exchange within one nest is conditioned by temperature, time, number of individuals and saturation. Another question is whether food exchanges also take place between the different nests of ant-colonies of the same species. By labelling single nests with radioactive food we were able to find intensive food exchanges with different nests in the colony, up to distances of 200 m. We obtained similar results in three different colonies and in different years. The existence of such long-range food exchanges is  More>>
Authors:
Gosswald, K.; Kloft, W. [1] 
  1. Institute of Applied Zoology, University of Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)
Publication Date:
Sep 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, Athens (Greece), 22-26 Apr 1963; Other Information: 4 figs., 2 tabs., 41 refs.; Related Information: In: Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests| 526 p.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANTS; BEES; BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE; EXCRETION; FEEDING; FOOD; IODINE 131; LABELLING; PEST ERADICATION
OSTI ID:
22127657
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13R0272082736
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 25-42
Announcement Date:
Sep 12, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Gosswald, K., and Kloft, W. Tracer Experiments on Food Exchange in Ants and Termites; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude de la trophallaxis chez les fourmis et les termites; Izuchenie s pomoshch'yu indikatorov obmena pishchej u murav'ev i termitov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para estudiar la trofalaxia en las hormigas y los termites. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Gosswald, K., & Kloft, W. Tracer Experiments on Food Exchange in Ants and Termites; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude de la trophallaxis chez les fourmis et les termites; Izuchenie s pomoshch'yu indikatorov obmena pishchej u murav'ev i termitov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para estudiar la trofalaxia en las hormigas y los termites. IAEA.
Gosswald, K., and Kloft, W. 1963. "Tracer Experiments on Food Exchange in Ants and Termites; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude de la trophallaxis chez les fourmis et les termites; Izuchenie s pomoshch'yu indikatorov obmena pishchej u murav'ev i termitov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para estudiar la trofalaxia en las hormigas y los termites." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22127657,
title = {Tracer Experiments on Food Exchange in Ants and Termites; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude de la trophallaxis chez les fourmis et les termites; Izuchenie s pomoshch'yu indikatorov obmena pishchej u murav'ev i termitov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para estudiar la trofalaxia en las hormigas y los termites}
author = {Gosswald, K., and Kloft, W.}
abstractNote = {One of the most important aspects of social insects, such as ants, honey-bees and termites, is their tendency to trophallactic food exchanges, which can be studied well by the use of labelled food. In comparative studies we found the most rapid rate of exchange in honey-bees, but extreme differences were observed among the different sub-families of ants, which must be taken in consideration in case of tracer field-experiments. The greatest tendency towards trophallactic exchanges was found in the sub-family Camponotinae. Ants of the genus Formica, especially Formica polyctena Foerst, and related polygenous and polycalous species known to be imoortant factors in die preventive biological control of forest insect pests, were intensively analysed. It was found that the rate of food exchange within one nest is conditioned by temperature, time, number of individuals and saturation. Another question is whether food exchanges also take place between the different nests of ant-colonies of the same species. By labelling single nests with radioactive food we were able to find intensive food exchanges with different nests in the colony, up to distances of 200 m. We obtained similar results in three different colonies and in different years. The existence of such long-range food exchanges is very important for the estimation of the regulating effect on insect pests of useful Formica species, since these exchanges prevent die quick saturation of any nest through local mass-infestation of insects in their predating area. It was shown bv the tracer experiments that the collected food flows in most of the surrounding nests of the ant-colony: thus colonies of those useful wood-ants act as a complex system with high ecological effectiveness. Using labelled food, we studied in termites (Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr.) which stages and castes are capable of direct feeding or are receptors of stomodeally or proctodeally given trophallactic food. Pseudoworkers are most effective. We also attempted to use tracer methods to explain the greater longevity and greater aggressiveness of termites when in groups than as single individuals. Pseudoworkers of Kalotermes flavicollis were labelled with I{sup 131}. After feeding, some of these labelled termites were caged individually, while other groups were formed which also included unlabelled individuals. By measuring the effective half-life and calculating the biological half-life, which primarily depends on the rate of excretion, we found that the tracer remained longer in groups - when the group is viewed as one unit - than in isolated individuals. The result can be explained by the measured trophallactic exchanges of food and repeated circulation among individual members comprising a group. Similar results were obtained with two ant-species from different subfamilies. The greater economy in the use of food and other substances may be a contributory factor to the ''group-effect'' in social insects. Special problems of comparable measuring techniques for living single individuals and insect groups are dealt with. (author) [French] Un aspect particulierement important de la vie des insectes sociaux comme les fourmis, les abeilles et les termites est la tendance a la trophallaxis, qu' il est facile d'etudier au moyen de nourriture marquee. Des etudes comparatives ont montre que la trophallaxis est le plus rapide chez les abeilles, mais qu'elle varie considerablement d'une sous-famille de fourmis a l 'autre, facteur qui doit etre pris en consideration dans les experiences faites sur le terrain a l'aide de radioindicatuers. La plus forte tendance a la trophallaxis a ete relevee chez les individus de la sous-famille Camponotinae. Les auteurs ont etudie tout particulierement les fourmis du genus Formica, en particulier la Formica polyctena Forst (fourmi rousse) et les especes polygenes et pluridomes apparentees, qui representent un facteur biologique important dans la lutte contre les insectes nuisibles aux forets. Les auteurs-ont observe que la trophallaxis a l'interieur d'une fourmiliere est conditionnee par la temperature, l 'epoquee, le nombre d'individus et la saturation. Un autre probleme est de savoir s'il y a egalement trophallaxis entre differentes fourmilieres de colonies appartenant a la meme espece. En introduisant de la nourriture marquee dans diverses fourmilieres, les auteurs ont pu detecter des echanges intensifs entre des fourmilieres separees par des distances allant jusqu'a 200 m. Ils ont obtenu des resultats semblables pour trois colonies differentes, au cours de plusieurs annees. Cette trophallaxis a grande distance a beaucoup d'importance pour l 'evaluation du role des especes Formica dans la lutte contre les insectes nuisibles; elle empeche toute fourmiliere d'etre rapidement saturee par l 'infestation massive d'insectes dam la zone d' activite des fourmis: les experiences faites a l'aide de radioindicateurs montrent que la nourriture accumulee est echangee entre la plupart des fourmilieres voisines. Ainsi, les colonies de fourmis rousses utiles constituent un complexe qui peut jouer un role important sur le plan ecologique. A l ' aide de nourriture marquee, les auteurs ont etudie quelles formes et castes de termites (Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr.) interviennent par voie buccale ou anale dans la trophallaxis. Les resultats les plus interessants ont ete enregistres chez les pseudo-ouvriers. Les auteurs se sont aussi efforces d'etudier, a l'aide de radioindicateurs, les causes pour lesquelles la longevite est plus elevee et l'agressivite plus forte chez les termites en groupes que chez les termites isoles. Ils ont marque des pseudo-ouvriers de Kalotermes flavicollis a l'iode-131. Apres les avoir nourris, ils ont place dans des cages individuelles un certain nombre des individus marques et ils ont forme en meme temps d'autres groupes qui comprenaient aussi des individus non marques. En mesurant la periode effective et en calculant la periode biologique, qui depend essentiellement du taux d'excretion, ils ont constate que le radioindicateur persistait plus longtemps chez les individus en groupes - le groupe etant considere comme l'unite - que chez les individus isoles. Ce resultat peut etre attribue a la trophallaxis et a la circulation repetee entre les individus du groupe. Les auteurs ont obtenu des resultats semblables pour deux especes de fourmis appartenant a des sous-familles differentes. Il se peut qu'une plus grande economie dans l'utilisation de la nourriture et d'autres substances contribue a ''l'effet de groupe'' chez les insectes sociaux. Les auteurs etudient les problemes particuliers que pose la mise au point de methodes de mesure comparables pour les insectes isoles et les groupes d'insectes. (author) [Spanish] En los insectos sociales - hormigas, abejas y termites - es de suma importancia la tendencia a la trofalaxia, que puede estudiarse bien mediante alimentos marcados. Los autores de ]a memoria han podido comprobar en estudios comparativos que la trofalaxia es mas rapida en las abejas, pero han observado diferencias considerables entre las diversas subfamilias de hormigas, lo que debe tenerse en cuenta cuando se efectuan experimentos con indicadores. La subfamilia Camponotinaees la que tiene una tendencia mas marcada a la trofalaxia. Los autores estudiaron hormigas del Genus Formica, en particular la Formica polyctena Forst, y otras especies poligenicas afines que desempenan un importante papel en la lucha biologica preventiva contra las plagas de insectos forestales. La trofalaxia dentro de un nido esta condicionada por la temperatura, el tiempo, el numero de individuos y la saturacion. Otro problema es el de saber si existe tambien trofalaxia entre diferente nidos de colonias de hormigas de la misma especie. Introduciendo en algunos nidos alimentos marcados, los autores observaron un considerable intercambio de alimentos entre los nidos de la colonia hasta 200 metros de distancia. Lograron resultados analogos en tres colonias diferentes y en anos distintos. La trofalaxia a grandes distancias es un factor muy importante para evaluar la accion destructiva que ejercen las especies utiles de Formica sobre los insectos nocivos, ya que impide la rapida saturacion de los nidos por una infestacion local masiva de insectos en la zona de merodeo. Los experimentos con indicadores muestran que los alimentos acumulados pasan a la mayoria de los nidos vecinos de las colonias de hormigas. Por tanto, las colonias de la Formica rufa actuan como un sistema complejo de gran eficacia ecologica. Con ayuda de alimentos marcados, los autores estudiaron en los termites (Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr,) que fases y castas intervienen en la trofalaxia bucal o anal. Los seudoobreros son los mas eficaces. Utilizando indicadores radiactivos, los autores trataron de descubrir por que razon los termites en grupo son mas agresivos y tienen mayor longevidad que los termites solitarios. Los seudoobreros fueron marcados con {sup 131}I. Despues de alimentarlos, algunos de estos termites marcados fueron,encerrados en cajas por separado, y al mismo tiempo se formaron otros grupos que comprendian termites no marcados. Midiendo el periodo eficaz y calculando el periodo biologico, que depende ante todo del indice de excrecion, los autores observaron que el indicador permanecia mas tiempo en los individuos en grupo - considerando el grupo como una unidad - que en los individuos aislados. Este resultado puede explicarse por la trofalaxia y una circulacion frecuente entre los individuos del grupo. Se obtuvieron resultados analogos con dos especies de hormigas de dos subfamilias distintas. La mayor economia en el empleo de alimentos y otras sustancias puede contribuir al ''efecto de grupo'' en los insectos sociales. En la memoria se examinan algunos problemas especiales de las tecnicas de medicion comparables para grupos de insectos e insectos aislados. (author) [Russian] Samym vagnym dlya takikh obshchestvennykh nasekomykh, kak murav'i, medonosnye pchely i termity yavlyaetsya ikh stremlenie k trofollakticheskomu obmenu pishchej, kotoryj mokhet byt' khorosho izuchen s pomoshch'yu mechennoj radioaktivnymi veshchestvami pishchi. Pri sravnitel'nom izuchenii samaya vysokaya skorost' obmena byla obnaruzhena u medonosnykh pchel, v to vremya kak u razlichnykh podsemejstv murav'ev ona byla chrezvychajno raznoobraznoj, chto dolkhvo byt' uchteno pri provedenii polevykh ehksperimentov s primeneniem indikatorov. Samoe sil'noe stremlenie k trofollakticheskomu obmenu my obnaruzhili u podsemejstva Camponotlnae. Usilenno izuchalis' murav'i Genus Formica.osobenno Formica polyctena (Forst.), i rodstvennye poligennye i polycalous vidy, kotorye igrayut vakhnuyu rol' v predupreditel'noj biologicheskoj bor'be s nasekomymi-vreditelyami lesa. Ustanovleno, chto skorost' obmena pishchej v odnom muravejnike obuslovlena temperaturoj, vremenem, kolichestvom osobej i nasyshcheniem. Drugoj problemoj yavlyaetsya vopros o tom, sushchestvuet li obmen pishchej mekhdu razlichnymi muravejnikami kolonii murav'ev odnogo vida. Pometiv otdel'nye muravejniki s pomoshch'yu vneseniya radioaktivnoj pishchi, my smogli obnaruzhit' intensivnyj obmen pishchej mekhdu razlichnymi muravejnikami kolonii, otstoyashchimi drug ot druga na rasstoyanie do 200 m. Analogichnye rezul'taty my poluchili dlya trekh razlichnykh kolonij v razlichnye gody. Sushchestvovanie takogo dal'nego obmena pishchej yavlyaetsya ochen' vakhnym dlya otsenki reguliruptsego dejstviya poleznykh vidov murav'ev v otnoshenii nasekomykhvreditelej. Lelo v tom, chto obmen prepyatstvuet bystromu nasyshcheniyu populyatsii lyubogo muravejnika vsledstvie mestnoj massovoj invazii nasekomykh v ikh predydushchem gnezde. Kak pokazali ehksperimenty s primeneniem indikatorov, sobrannaya pishcha popadaet v bol'shinstvo okruzhayushchikh muravejnikov kolonii murav'ev. Poehtomu kolonii ehtikh poleznykh lesnykh murav'ev dejstvuyut kak slokhnaya sistema s vysokoj ehkologicheskoj ehffektivnost'yu. S pomoshch'yu mechennoj radioaktivnymi veshchestvami pishchi my izuchili, kakie kategorii i kasty termitov (Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr.) sposobny k pryamomu pitaniyu i kakie pitayutsya trofollakti-cheskoj pishchej, otrygivaemoj kormil'tsami izo rta v rot ili poluchaemoj iz pryamoj kishki poslednikh. Naibolee ehffektivnymi yavlyayutsya psevdorabochie. My takkhe pytalis' ob''yasnit' s pomoshch'yu indikatornykh metodov prichiny bol'shej prodolzhitel'nosti khizni i bol'shej agressivnosti grupp termitov po sravneniyu s otdel'nymi izolirovannymi osobyami. Psevdorabochie Kalotermes flavicollis metilis' J''1''3''1. Posle kormleniya nekotorye iz mechenykh termitov byli izolirovany poodinochke, a iz drugikh termitov obrazovany gruppy, vklyuchayushchie takkhe nemechenykh osobej. Izmeriv ehffektivnyj period poluraspada i rasschitav biologicheskij poluperiod, kotoryj prekhde vsego zavisit ot skorosti vydeleniya, my obnarukhili, chto indikator dol'she ostaetsya v gruppe (kogda gruppa rassmatrivaetsya kak edinoe tse loe), chem u izolirovannykh osobej. EHto mokhno ob'yasnit' izmerennym trofollakticheskim obmenom pishchej i povtornoj tsirkulyatsiej sredi otdel'nykh osobej, sostavlyayushchikh gruppu. Analogichnye rezul'taty Mti poluchili s dvumya gruppami murav'ev, otnosyashchimisya k razlichnym podsemejstvam. Bol'shaya ehkonomiya v potreblenii pishchi i drugikh veshchestv mokhet byt' faktorom, sposobstvuyushchim ''gruppovym dejstviyam'' obshchestvennykh nasekomykh. Rassmatrivayutsya spetsial'nye problemy metodov sravnitel'nykh izmerenij khivushchikh otdel'no osobej i grupp nasekomykh. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Sep}
}