You need JavaScript to view this

Biological Monitoring for Plutonium-241; Detection du Plutonium-241 par Controles Biologiques; Dozimetriya Plutoniya-241 v biologicheskikh materialakh; Determinacion del Plutonio-241 en Sustancias Biologicas

Abstract

The origin and characteristics of {sup 241}Pu are described, special emphasis being given to its consideration as a health hazard, and to the problem of its determination. A counting system is described which is at present under development at Windscale for the low-level quantitative assay of {sup 241}Pu in samples from a biological monitoring programme. The technique at its present stage of development is at least as sensitive as procedures previously reported, and represents an improvement in terms of simplicity, rapidity and economy. The procedure is intended primarily for use in urinanalysis to supplement information already obtained from autoradiographic analysis of {alpha}-active plutonium isotopes. The same source disc is used for {sup 241}Pu assay thereby economizing in preparative effort. The isotopes of plutonium are first separated from the sample of urine, or other biological material, in a state of high radiochemical purity using an anion exchange procedure. They are then electrodeposited on to a stainless-steel disc. A direct count of the {sup 241}Pu soft beta-ray spectrum (maximum energy 20 keV, half-life 13.3 years) is obtained in an anti-coincidence system consisting of a small-volume gas-flow proportional counter with a plastic phosphor scintillation anti-coincidence guard. The dimensions are such that all the  More>>
Authors:
Dalton, J. C.; McDonald, B. J.; Barnes, V. [1] 
  1. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale Works, Sellafield (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Oct 15, 1965
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-61/24
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology, Vienna (Austria), 24-28 May 1965; Other Information: 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.; Related Information: In: Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques| 741 p.
Subject:
07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ELECTRODEPOSITION; GAS FLOW; HALF-LIFE; HEALTH HAZARDS; INTAKE; ION EXCHANGE; KEV RANGE 10-100; MONITORING; PLUTONIUM 241; PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS; SCINTILLATIONS; STAINLESS STEELS; URINE
OSTI ID:
22127282
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M2488082361
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 347-361
Announcement Date:
Sep 12, 2013

Citation Formats

Dalton, J. C., McDonald, B. J., and Barnes, V. Biological Monitoring for Plutonium-241; Detection du Plutonium-241 par Controles Biologiques; Dozimetriya Plutoniya-241 v biologicheskikh materialakh; Determinacion del Plutonio-241 en Sustancias Biologicas. IAEA: N. p., 1965. Web.
Dalton, J. C., McDonald, B. J., & Barnes, V. Biological Monitoring for Plutonium-241; Detection du Plutonium-241 par Controles Biologiques; Dozimetriya Plutoniya-241 v biologicheskikh materialakh; Determinacion del Plutonio-241 en Sustancias Biologicas. IAEA.
Dalton, J. C., McDonald, B. J., and Barnes, V. 1965. "Biological Monitoring for Plutonium-241; Detection du Plutonium-241 par Controles Biologiques; Dozimetriya Plutoniya-241 v biologicheskikh materialakh; Determinacion del Plutonio-241 en Sustancias Biologicas." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22127282,
title = {Biological Monitoring for Plutonium-241; Detection du Plutonium-241 par Controles Biologiques; Dozimetriya Plutoniya-241 v biologicheskikh materialakh; Determinacion del Plutonio-241 en Sustancias Biologicas}
author = {Dalton, J. C., McDonald, B. J., and Barnes, V.}
abstractNote = {The origin and characteristics of {sup 241}Pu are described, special emphasis being given to its consideration as a health hazard, and to the problem of its determination. A counting system is described which is at present under development at Windscale for the low-level quantitative assay of {sup 241}Pu in samples from a biological monitoring programme. The technique at its present stage of development is at least as sensitive as procedures previously reported, and represents an improvement in terms of simplicity, rapidity and economy. The procedure is intended primarily for use in urinanalysis to supplement information already obtained from autoradiographic analysis of {alpha}-active plutonium isotopes. The same source disc is used for {sup 241}Pu assay thereby economizing in preparative effort. The isotopes of plutonium are first separated from the sample of urine, or other biological material, in a state of high radiochemical purity using an anion exchange procedure. They are then electrodeposited on to a stainless-steel disc. A direct count of the {sup 241}Pu soft beta-ray spectrum (maximum energy 20 keV, half-life 13.3 years) is obtained in an anti-coincidence system consisting of a small-volume gas-flow proportional counter with a plastic phosphor scintillation anti-coincidence guard. The dimensions are such that all the plutonium {beta}-particles are absorbed within the proportional counter while the {alpha}-particles dissipate about half their energy within the plastic phosphor. The geometry for both radiations is almost 2{pi}. At its present stage of development the equipment will detect 3 pCi of {sup 241}Pu in a counting time of one hour. This represents the 24 h urinary excretion rate 3 months after the intake of about 5% of a maximum permissible body-burden (0.9 {mu}Ci). The discs are subsequently assayed for a'-active plutonium isotopes by exposure for one week to a nuclear track plate which is then examined visually using a microscope. (author) [French] Les auteurs indiquent l'origine et les caracteristiques du {sup 241}Pu, en examinant plus particulierement les risques qu'il presente pour la sante et le probleme que pose son dosage. Ils decrivent un systeme de comptage, qui est en voie d'elaboration a Windscale, pour doser de petites quantites de {sup 241}Pu dans des echantillons preleves dans le cadre d'un programme de controle biologique. Au stade actuel de sa mise au point, cette methode est pour le moins aussi sensible que les procedes signales anterieurement et elle est plus simple, plus rapide et plus rentable. Elle est essentiellement destinee aux analyses d'urine en vue de completer les renseignements deja obtenus par analyse autoradiographique des isotopes emetteurs alpha du plutonium. Le meme porte-source est utilise pour le dosage du {sup 241}Pu, ce qui permet d'eviter certains travaux preparatoires. A l'aide d'une methode fondee sur l'echange d'anions, les isotopes du plutonium sont tout d'abord separes de l'echantillon d'urine ou de toute autre matiere biologique, dans un etat de grandepurete radiochimique. Puis on les fixe par electrolyse sur un disque en acier inoxydable. Un systeme de comptage par anticoiencidence comportant un compteur proportionnel de faible volume a circulation continue de gaz et muni d'une garde anticoiencidence a scintillation en matiere plastique permet de determiner directement le spectre beta mou du {sup 241}Pu (energie maximale 20 keV, periode 13,3 a). Les dimensions sont telles que toutes les particules beta emises par le plutonium sont absorbees a l'interieur du compteur proportionnel alors que les particules alpha perdent 50% environ de leur energie dans le scintillateur en matiere plastique. Pour les deux rayonnements, la geometrie est pratiquement 2{pi}. A son stade actuel, le materiel permet de detecter 3 pCi de {sup 241}Pu en 1 h de comptage. Cela correspond au taux d'excretion urinaire de 24 h trois mois apres l'absorption d'environ 5% de la charge corporelle maximale admissible (0,9 {mu}Ci). On procede ensuite au dosage des isotopes emetteurs alpha du plutonium en exposant au disque, pendant une semaine, une plaque a emulsion nucleaire qui fait ensuite l'objet d'un examen visuel au microscope. (author) [Spanish] Los autores examinan el origen y las caracteristicas del {sup 241}Pu, prestando especial atencion a los riesgos que entrana para la salud y a los problemas que plantea su determinacion. Describen un aparato de recuento que se esta perfeccionando actualmente en Windscale, dentro del marco de un programa de vigilancia radiologica individual, para la determinacion cuantitativa de bajas actividades de {sup 241}Pu contenido en muestras. En la etapa actual de desarrollo, dicha tecnica es, por lo menos, tan sensible como los otros metodos conocidos y al mismo tiempo mas simple, rapida y economica. Ha sido ideada principalmente para su utilizacion en analisis de orina a fin de completar los datos ya obtenidos por determinacion autorradiografica de los emisores alfa isotopos del plutonio. La misma fuente en forma de disco se emplea para la determinacion del {sup 241}Pu, lo que simplifica la preparacion. Por intercambio anionico se procede primero a separar los isotopos del plutonio de la muestra de orina, o de otra sustancia biologica, en estado de gran pureza radioquimica. A continuacion se depositan por electrolisis sobre un disco de acero inoxidable. El recuento directo del espectro beta blando del {sup 241}Pu (energia maxima 20 keV, periodo 13,3 anos) se efectua con ayuda de un dispositivo de anticoincidencia formado por un contador proporcional de corriente gaseosa, de pequenas dimensiones, protegido por un contador de centelleo anular de material plastico. Gracias a las dimensiones del contador, todas las particulas beta del plutonio son absorbidas en el interior del aparato, mientras que las particulas alfa disipan cerca de la mitad de su energia en el material plastico. La geometria para ambas radiaciones es casi de 2 {pi}. El equipo construido hasta la fecha puede detectar 3 pCi de {sup 241}Pu en un recuento de 1 h. Esta cantidad representa la excretada por la orina durante 24 h a los 3 meses de absorber el 5% de la carga corporal maxima admisible (0,9 {mu}Ci). Seguidamente los discos se analizan para determinar los isotopos del plutonio emisores alfa colocandolos durante una semana sobre una placa nuclear, que se examina visualmente bajo el microscopio. (author) [Russian] Opisyvajutsja proishozhdenie i harakteristiki plutonija-241. Podcherkivajutsja soobrazhenija otnositel'no vreda jetogo jelementa dlja zdorov'ja i problemy ego opredelenija. Opisyvaetsja sistema scheta, vyrabatyvaemaja v nastojashhee vremja v Uindskejle dlja kolichestvennogo opredelenija plutonija-241 maloj aktivnosti v probah, sobiraemyh po programme biologicheskogo dozimetricheskogo kontrolja. Na nastojashhej stadii razrabotki jetot metod po men'shej mere stol' zhe chuvstvitelen, kak opisannye ranee, i obladae't preimushhestvami blagodarja prostote, bystrote i jekonomichnosti. Jetot metod prednaznachen v pervuju ochered' dlja analiza mochi dlja dopolnenija informacii, uzhe poluchennoj posredstvom radioavtograficheskogo analiza al'fa-aktivnyh radioizotopov plutonija. Dlja opredelenija kolichestva plutonija-241 ispol'zuetsja tot zhe samyj diskovyj istochnik, chto pozvoljaet sokratit' podgotovitel'nye raboty. Radioizotopy plutonija prezhde vsego izvlekajut iz proby mochi ili drugogo biologicheskogo materiala v sostojanii bol'shoj radiohimicheskoj chistoty posredstvom anionoobmena. V rezul'tate jelektroliza oni otkladyvajutsja na diske iz nerzhavejushhej stali. Neposredstvennyj otschet mjagkogo beta-spektra plutonija-241 (maksimal'naja jenergija 20 kjev, period poluraspada 13,3 goda) proizvoditsja s pomoshh'ju sistemy antisovpadenij, sostojashhej iz proporcional'nogo schetchika malogo ob{sup e}ma s gazovym potokom i iz zashhity s plasticheskim fosfornym scintilljatorom antisovpadenij. Razmery takovy, chto vse beta-chasticy plutonija pogloshhajutsja v proporcional'nom schetchike, togda kak al'fa-chasticy rasseivajut okolo poloviny svoej jenergii v plasticheskom fosfore. Dlja oboih radiacij geometrija sostavljaet pochti 2 {pi}. Na nastojashhej stadii svoego razvitija oborudovanie v sostojanii obnaruzhivat' tri pikokjuri plutonija-241 za vremja scheta odin chas. Jeto sootvetstvuet kolichestvu vydelenija mochi za 24 chasa cherez tri mesjaca posle pogloshhenija priblizitel'no 5% maksimal'no dopustimogo soderzhanija plutonija v organizme (0,9 mikrokjuri). Posle jetogo diski ispol'zujut dlja opredelenija al'fa-aktivnyh radioizotopov plutonija, dlja chego oni vyderzhivajutsja v techenie odnoj nedeli na plastinke po registracii jadernyh sledov, a zatem jeti plastinki issledujutsja pod mikroskopom. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1965}
month = {Oct}
}