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Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France

Conference:

Abstract

It is important to guard against the risk of criticality accidents by seeking to prevent their occurrence through the elimination of their causes and also by taking steps to provide against their consequences. These two aspects are closely linked since the efforts made to elaborate preventive procedures are dictated by the importance of the repercussions which such accidents are liable to have in the human, economic and psychological spheres. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though small in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent them, and they constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating their consequences and developing suitable precautionary techniques. The authors give a detailed analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments in connection with the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operation, the characteristic accidents capable of serving as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident (location, design and lay-out of installations, accident detection dosimetry for exposed personnel) are briefly described after  More>>
Authors:
Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J. -M. [1] 
  1. Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Paris (France)
Publication Date:
May 15, 1966
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-70/17
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm (Sweden), 1-5 Nov 1965; Other Information: 29 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.; Related Information: In: Criticality Control Fissile of Materials. Proceedings of the Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials| 772 p.
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT; CRITICALITY; DOSIMETRY; FRANCE; NUCLEAR FACILITIES; NUCLEAR INDUSTRY; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; PROBABILITY; RADIATION ACCIDENTS; RADIATION DETECTION; RELIABILITY; RISK ASSESSMENT; SAFETY
OSTI ID:
22117271
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
French
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M2181073892
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 717-735
Announcement Date:
Aug 01, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Fruchard, Y., and Lavie, J. -M. Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France. IAEA: N. p., 1966. Web.
Fruchard, Y., & Lavie, J. -M. Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France. IAEA.
Fruchard, Y., and Lavie, J. -M. 1966. "Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22117271,
title = {Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France}
author = {Fruchard, Y., and Lavie, J. -M.}
abstractNote = {It is important to guard against the risk of criticality accidents by seeking to prevent their occurrence through the elimination of their causes and also by taking steps to provide against their consequences. These two aspects are closely linked since the efforts made to elaborate preventive procedures are dictated by the importance of the repercussions which such accidents are liable to have in the human, economic and psychological spheres. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though small in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent them, and they constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating their consequences and developing suitable precautionary techniques. The authors give a detailed analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments in connection with the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operation, the characteristic accidents capable of serving as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident (location, design and lay-out of installations, accident detection dosimetry for exposed personnel) are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. Finally, the authors discuss the economic implications of adopting particular precautionary measures and of applying them uniformly, taking due account of the question of reliability. (author) [French] II est important de se proteger contre les risques d'accidents de criticite en tentant, d'une part, de prevenir les accidents eux-memes par l'elimination de leurs causes, d'autre part, de parer a leurs consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies: l'effort portant sur la prevention des accidents decoule de l'importance de leurs consequences sur les plans humain, economique et psychologique. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention, et constituent la seule base realiste disponible en vue de l'evaluation des consequences et de la mise au point de mesures de protection. Les auteurs presentent une analyse des causes et des consequences connues des accidents de criticite survenus et en degagent un certain nombre d'observations: sur la validite des criteres traditionnels de surete, la probabilite que des accidents se produisent suivant la nature des operations, les accidents caracteristiques susceptibles de servir de modele, et l'ampleur des consequences radiologiques possibles. Les solutions adoptees en France pour limiter les consequences d'un eventuel accident de criticite (situation, conception et amenagement des installations; detection des accidents; dosimetrie pour le personnel expose) sont brievement decrites apres un rapide expose des principes ayant preside a leur choix. L'incidence economique du choix et de l'homogeneite des mesures de protection est examinee eu egard a leur fiabilite. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1966}
month = {May}
}