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The Performance of Major Plant Items at Calder Hall; Fonctionnement des elements principaux de la centrale de Calder Hall; Kharakteristika osnovnykh uzlov ustanovki v Kolder-Kholle; Rendimiento de los principales elementos de la central de Calder Hall

Conference:

Abstract

For over six years Calder Hall has been operated as a base-load power station and has sustained faults similar to those experienced by conventional power plants. All the faults have occurred in the conventional plant and none in the nuclear reactors themselves. Experience has demonstrated that from a reactor safety viewpoint, reactors and major plant items, together with the Grid connections, must be treated as a whole. No significant changes have been detected which suggest that the reactor pressure vessel or the graphite moderator will limit plant life. Asymmetric temperature distribution exists round the outlet gas ducts and now limits reactor power. The initial fitting of more thermocouples, strain gauges and provision for visual examination at high stress and temperature areas is recommended. The humidriers are no longer used during normal operation and consequently a small increase in reactor power has resulted. Recommendations are made for the frequency of surveys of heat exchangers, main gas ducts and bellow units. A small increase in steam generation has resulted from reducing gas bypassing. Only minor difficulties have been experienced with the centrifugal type of gas circulators. A small loss in production occurred initially because of commutator flash overs on the highly stressed  More>>
Authors:
Desbruslais, E. L. [1] 
  1. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Seascale, Cumberland (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Oct 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors, Vienna (Austria), 4-8 Jun 1963; Other Information: 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.; Related Information: In: Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Proceedings of the Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Vol. I| 540 p.
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; BLOWERS; CALDER HALL A-1 REACTOR; CONTROL ELEMENTS; GRAPHITE; HEAT EXCHANGERS; POWER SUPPLIES; PRESSURE VESSELS; REACTOR INSTRUMENTATION; REACTOR SAFETY; REACTOR START-UP; STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS; STEAM GENERATION; STRAIN GAGES; STRESSES; TELEVISION CAMERAS; TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION; THERMOCOUPLES
OSTI ID:
22106421
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13R0396064242
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 425-451
Announcement Date:
Jun 20, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Desbruslais, E. L. The Performance of Major Plant Items at Calder Hall; Fonctionnement des elements principaux de la centrale de Calder Hall; Kharakteristika osnovnykh uzlov ustanovki v Kolder-Kholle; Rendimiento de los principales elementos de la central de Calder Hall. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Desbruslais, E. L. The Performance of Major Plant Items at Calder Hall; Fonctionnement des elements principaux de la centrale de Calder Hall; Kharakteristika osnovnykh uzlov ustanovki v Kolder-Kholle; Rendimiento de los principales elementos de la central de Calder Hall. IAEA.
Desbruslais, E. L. 1963. "The Performance of Major Plant Items at Calder Hall; Fonctionnement des elements principaux de la centrale de Calder Hall; Kharakteristika osnovnykh uzlov ustanovki v Kolder-Kholle; Rendimiento de los principales elementos de la central de Calder Hall." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22106421,
title = {The Performance of Major Plant Items at Calder Hall; Fonctionnement des elements principaux de la centrale de Calder Hall; Kharakteristika osnovnykh uzlov ustanovki v Kolder-Kholle; Rendimiento de los principales elementos de la central de Calder Hall}
author = {Desbruslais, E. L.}
abstractNote = {For over six years Calder Hall has been operated as a base-load power station and has sustained faults similar to those experienced by conventional power plants. All the faults have occurred in the conventional plant and none in the nuclear reactors themselves. Experience has demonstrated that from a reactor safety viewpoint, reactors and major plant items, together with the Grid connections, must be treated as a whole. No significant changes have been detected which suggest that the reactor pressure vessel or the graphite moderator will limit plant life. Asymmetric temperature distribution exists round the outlet gas ducts and now limits reactor power. The initial fitting of more thermocouples, strain gauges and provision for visual examination at high stress and temperature areas is recommended. The humidriers are no longer used during normal operation and consequently a small increase in reactor power has resulted. Recommendations are made for the frequency of surveys of heat exchangers, main gas ducts and bellow units. A small increase in steam generation has resulted from reducing gas bypassing. Only minor difficulties have been experienced with the centrifugal type of gas circulators. A small loss in production occurred initially because of commutator flash overs on the highly stressed blower drive motors and generators. The provision of duplicate stand-by auxiliaries, together with the interconnection of steam and water systems, has been amply justified. The BCDG equipment has proved extremely satisfactory. Because the channel group sensitivity is higher than necessary, modifications to achieve shorter cycle times at the expense of some sensitivity are being contemplated. The, re-arrangement made to the power supplies for reactor instrumentation and safety circuits is discussed. The grading of alarms and sequence of importance and a ''first up'' feature are recommended. The two-guard-line system has proved adequate and the need for three or more is questioned. Statistics have shown that the data-logging equipment is extremely reliable. More standardization of fuel handling equipment is advocated. The use of special flasks and special discharge equipment are time-wasting and should be discouraged. Modifications made to the charge/discharge machines and auxiliary plant are described. Careful handling of fuel during loading is emphasized. Fuel channel television cameras and special grabs have enabled discharge times to be reduced. Only minor faults have been experienced with the compled control-rod mechanisms and associated control equipment. As far as possible plant controls should be centralized and important control centres and items of plant should be protected from accidental damage from external sources. Automatic start-up and parallelling features for the emergency diesel plant are considered unnecessary but the plant could, with advantage, be centralized. (author) [French] Depuis plus de six ans, Calder Hall fonctionne comme centrale de base et a subi des defaillances semblables a celles qu'on peut constater dans les centrales electriques classiques. Toutes ces defaillances se sont produites dans la partie classique de la centrale; aucune n'a ete relevee dans les reacteurs proprements dits. L'experience a montre que du point de vue de la securite du reacteur, il faut traiter comme un tout les reacteurs et les principaux elements de la centrale ainsi que les connections avec le reseau. On n'a constate aucune alteration importante donnant a penser que le caisson du reacteur ou le ralentisseur de graphite limiteront la duree de vie de la centrale. La distribution de la temperature autour des conduites de sortie du gaz est asymetrique, ce qui limite actuellement la puissance du reacteur. Il y aurait eu interet a amenager au debut un plus grand nombre de thermocouples.d'instruments de mesure des efforts et de dispositifs permettant un examen visuel des zones soumises a des contraintes et des temperatures elevees. Les dessicateurs ne sont plus employes au cours du fonctionnement normal et il en resulte une legere augmentation de la puissance du reacteur. Le memoire formule des recommandations pour la frequence des inspections des echangeurs de chaleur, des conduites de gaz principal et des soufflets. On a obtenu une legere augmentation de la production de vapeur en reduisant le debit du gaz dans les circuits de derivation. Les appareils centrifuges pour la circulation du gaz n'ont cause que des difficultes minimes. Il y a eu, au debut, une perte legere de production due a des courts-circuits dans les commutateurs des generateurs et des moteurs de ventilateurs soumis a un effort excessif. On s'est apercu que l'on avait eu raison de prevoir des auxiliaires de secours en double et d'interconnecter les circuits de vapeur et d'eau. L'appareillage de detection de rupture de gaine s'est revele extremement satisfaisant. Comme la sensibilite pai groupe de canaux est plus elevee qu'il n'est necessaire, on envisage des modifications qui raccourciront la duree du cycle au prix d'une certaine perte de sensibilite. L'auteur examine les mesures que l'on a prises pour amenager l'alimentation electrique de l'appareillage du reacteur et des circuits de securite. Il formule des recommandations concernant le systeme d'alarme. Le systeme a deux lignes s'est revele satisfaisant et la necessite d'en avoir trois ou davantage ne semble guere s'imposer. Les statistiques montrent que les appareils d'enregistrement des donnees sont d'un fonctionnement tres sur. L'auteur recommande une standardisation plus poussee des appareils de manutention du combustible. L'emploi de recipients et d'appareils de dechargement speciaux fait perdre du temps et est deconseille. L'auteur decrit les modifications apportees aux machines de chargement et de dechargement et aux installations auxiliaires. Il souligne l'importance du soin a apporter a la manipulation du combustible au cours du chargement. L'emploi d'appareils de television dans les canaux a combustible, et de pinces speciales, a permis de reduire les temps de dechargement. On n'a enregistre que des defaillances mineures dans les mecanismes complexes de commande des barres de reglage et le materiel de controle connexe. Dans toute la mesure du possible le controle de l'usine doit etre centralise et les principaux centres de controle ainsi que les elements importants de l'usine doivent etre proteges de tout dommage accidentel pouvant provenir de l'exterieur. Pour la generatrice diesel de secours, il ne semble pas necessaire de prevoir le demarrage automatique et des circuits doubles, mais une centralisation ne serait pas inutile. (author) [Spanish] Desde hace mas de seis afios, Calder Hall viene funcionando como central para la carga basica, habiendo sufrido avenas similares a las que se registran en las centrales clasicas de electricidad. Todas las fallas se han producido en la parte clasica de la central y ninguna en los reactores propiamente dichos. La experiencia ha demostrado que, desde el punto de vista de la seguridad de los reactores, estos mismos y los principales elementos de la central, asi como las conexiones con la red, se han de considerar en conjunto. No se ha observado ningun cambio importante que sugiera que el recipiente de presion del reactor o el moderador de grafito limitaran la vida util de la central. La distribucion de temperatura alrededor de los conductos de salida de gas es asimetrica, lo cual limita actualmente la potencia del reactor. Se ha recomendado montar mas pares termoelectricos, asi como instrumentos para medir deformaciones y dispositivos que permitan observar visualmente zonas de tension y temperaturas elevadas. Durante el funcionamiento normal, no se emplean ya los desecadores Humidrier y gracias a ello se ha logrado un ligero aumento de la potencia del reactor. Se formulan algunas recomendaciones respecto de la frecuencia de las inspecciones de los intercambiadores de calor, de los principales conductos de gas y de las juntas de fuelle. Se alcanzo un ligero aumento en la produccion de vapor reduciendo el caudal gaseoso en los circuitos de derivacion. Los aparatos centrifugos para la circulacion del gas no han ocasionado mas que dificultades de poca importancia. Al principio se produjo una ligera perdida de produccion debida a cortocircuitos en los conmutadores de los motores de las bombas y de los generadores, sometidos a esfuerzos excesivos. Ha quedado plenamente justificada la instalacion de motores auxiliares por duplicado y la interconexion de los circuitos de vapor y agua. Los aparatos para deteccion de defectos en las vainas han dado resultados altamente satisfactorios. Como la sensibilidad por cada grupo de canales es mayor de la necesaria, se esta estudiando la conveniencia de acortar los ciclos a expensas de la sensibilidad. El autor examina las medidas adoptadas para reordenar el sistema de alimentacion electrica de los instrumentos del reactor y de los circuitos de seguridad. Formula recomendaciones sobre el sistema de alarma; el de dos lfneas demostro ser satisfactorio y no parece imponerse la necesidad de disponer de tres o mas lineas. Las estadisticas muestran que el equipo de registro de datos funciona perfectamente. Aconseja normalizar mas el equipo de manipulacion del combustible y evitar el empleo de recipientes y de aparatos de descarga especiales que suponen perdidas de tiempo. El autor describe asimismo las modificaciones introducidas en las maquinas de carga y descarga y en las instalaciones auxiliares. Subraya la importancia de manipular cuidadosamente el combustible durante la carga. La instalacion de camaras de television en los canales para el combustible, asi como de pinzas especiales, han permitido reducir el tiempo de descarga. Los complejos mecanismos de las barras de control y el equipo auxiliar solo han sufrido averias menores. En lo posible, habria que centralizar los controles de la planta y proteger los centros de control y los elementos mas importantes de la central contra danos accidentales que puedan provenir de fuentes externas. Para el generador diesel de emergencia, no parece necesario prever un arranque automatico o circuitos paralelos, si bien una centralizacion no seria superflua. (author) [Russian] V techenie svyshe shesti let bol'shaya ustanovka v Kolder-Kholle ehkspluatiruetsya kak ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka s bazovoj nagruzkoj. Na nej voznikali takie khe povrezhdeniya, kak i na obychnykh ehnergeticheskikh ustanovkakh. Vse povrezhdeniya imeli mesto v obychnoj ustanovke i ni odnogo - v samikh yadernykh reaktorakh. Opyt pokazal, chto s tochki zreniya bezopasnosti reaktory i osnovnye uzly ustanovki vmeste s privodami sistemy neobkhodimo rassmatrivat' v tselom. Ne obnaruzheno nikakikh sushchestvennykh izmenenij, kotorye by davali povod dumat' o tom, chto korpus vysokogo davleniya reaktora ili grafitovyy zamedlitel' ogranichat srok ehkspluatatsii ustanovki. Asimmetrichnoe raspredelenie temperatury imeet mesto vokrug vykhodnykh gazovykh truboprovodov, i v nastoyashchee vremya ehto ogranichivaet moshchnost' reaktora. Rekomenduetsya ustanovit' vnachale dopolnitel'noe kolichestvo termopar, kontrol'no-izmeritel'nye pribory dlya opredeleniya napryazheniya i obespechit' vizual'noe nablyudenie za oblastyami vysokogo napryazheniya i temperatury. V khode normal'noj ehkspluatatsii osushiteli bol'she ne primenyayutsya, i sootvetstvenno v rezul'tate ehtogo dostignuto nebol'shoe uvelichenie moshchnosti reaktora. Dastsya rekomendatsii otnositel'no periodichnosti obsledovanij teploobmennikov, osnovnykh gazovykh truboprovodov i nizhnikh uzlov. Nebol'shoe uvelichenie v proizvodstve para dostignuto v rezul'tate umen'sheniya perepuska gaza. Nebol'shie trudnosti voznikli lish' pri ehkspluatatsii tsirkulyatorov gaza tsentrobezhnogo tipa. Otmecheno nebol'shoe snizhenie proizvodstva vnachale v rezul'tate krugovogo iskreniya kommutatorov pri vysokom napryazhenii na motorakh ventilyatorov i na generatorakh. Opravdannoj yavlyaetsya ustanovka sdvoennogo vspomogatel'nogo oborudovaniya vmeste s ob{sup e}dineniem parovoj i vodnoj sistem. Oborudovanie B.C.D.G. okazalos' v vysshej stepeni udovletvoritel'nym. Vvidu togo, chto chuvstvitel'nost' gruppy kanalov vyshe chem neobkhodimo, v nastoyashchee vremya planirugtsya izmeneniya s tsel' ukorocheniya tsiklov za schet nekotoroj chuvstvitel'nosti. Obsuzhdayutsya meropriyatiya po pereoborudovaniyu sistemy podachi ehnergii dlya priborov reaktora i konturov bezopasnosti. Rekomenduyutsya klassifikatsiya stepeni opasnosti i vazhnosti i ustrojstvo po pervomu vyklyucheniyu reaktora. Vyyasnyaetsya neobkhodimost' imet' sistemu s dvumya zashchitnymi liniyami i ustanavlivat' tri ili bolee takikh linij. Statistika- pokazala polnuyu nadezhnost' oborudovaniya registratsii dannykh. Opravdyvaetsya neobkhodimost' bol'shoj standartizatsii oborudovaniya po peregruzke topliva. Ispol'zovanie spetsial'nykh ballonov i spetsial'nogo oborudovaniya po razgruzke trebuet mnogo vremeni, i ot ehtogo sleduet otkazat'sya. Opisyvayutsya izmeneniya/ vnesennye v mekhanizmy po zagruzke/razgruzke i vo vspomogatel'nuyu ustanovku. Podcherkivaetsya neobkhodimost' tshchatel'noj obrabotki topliva vo vremya zagruzki. Primenenie televizionnykh kamer v toplivnykh kanalakh i spetsial'nykh zakhvatov pozvolilo sokratit' vremya razgruzki. Nebol'shie neispravnosti otmecheny lish' pri ehkspluatatsii slozhnykh mekhanizmov upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej i sootvetstvuyushchego oborudovaniya po kontrolyu. Naskol'ko ehto vozmozhno, osnovnye sistemy upravleniya ustanovki dolzhny byt' tsentralizovany, i osnovnye tsentry upravleniya i uzly upravleniya ustanovki dolzhny byt' zashchishcheny ot sluchajnogo povrezhdeniya pri obluchenii vneshnimi istochnikami. Priznayutsya neobkhodimymi avtomaticheskie puskovoe i parallel'noe ustrojstva dlya avarijnoj dizel'noj ustanovki, odnako ustanovka mogla by byt' tsentralizovana s pol'zoj dlya dela. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Oct}
}