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Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua

Abstract

Actual experience gained during the post-construction testing of three nuclear power plants, under the USAEC Power Reactor Demonstration Program, may permit some generalizations concerning this phase of plant construction and operation. The three plants, Elk River Reactor (ERR), Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HNPF), and the Piqua Nuclear Power Facility (PNPF), represent three different reactor concepts: natural-circulation boiling water, sodiumgraphite, and organic cooled and moderated, respectively. The post-construction testing period included the time between the end of construction (erection of structures and installation of equipment) and the beginning of power operation (generation of significant net electrical power). The tests were intended to: (a) verify the performance characteristics of the as-installed equipment; (b) obtain initial criticality and reactivity coefficient measurements; and (c) determine reactor physics and plant performance characteristics at a sequence of increasing power levels. .The experience gained can be reported in six separate but interrelated categories: (1) schedule; (2) costs; (3) staffing requirements; (4) procedures; (5) equipment performance (including malfunctions); and (6) actual, as compared to predicted, system performance characteristics. The average project staffing, including craftsmen, operators, supervisors, technical support and trainees, was approximately 50 for ERR, 115 for HNPF, and 60 for PNPF. Detailed written Pre-operational Test Procedures were  More>>
Authors:
Pursel, C. A. [1] 
  1. United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Oct 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors, Vienna (Austria), 4-8 Jun 1963; Other Information: 1 fig., 10 tabs.; Related Information: In: Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Proceedings of the Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Vol. I| 540 p.
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; COVER GAS; CRACKS; CRAFTSMEN; DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS; ERR REACTOR; FABRICATION; FAILURES; HEAT EXCHANGERS; HELIUM; HNPF REACTOR; LEAKS; LICENSING PROCEDURES; NATURAL CONVECTION; ORGANIC COOLANTS; PERFORMANCE; PNPF REACTOR; REACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS; REACTOR OPERATORS; REACTOR PHYSICS; REACTOR VESSELS; REPAIR; SCHEDULES; SODIUM; VALVES
OSTI ID:
22106409
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13R0384064230
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 89-124
Announcement Date:
Jun 20, 2013

Citation Formats

Pursel, C. A. Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Pursel, C. A. Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua. IAEA.
Pursel, C. A. 1963. "Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22106409,
title = {Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua}
author = {Pursel, C. A.}
abstractNote = {Actual experience gained during the post-construction testing of three nuclear power plants, under the USAEC Power Reactor Demonstration Program, may permit some generalizations concerning this phase of plant construction and operation. The three plants, Elk River Reactor (ERR), Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HNPF), and the Piqua Nuclear Power Facility (PNPF), represent three different reactor concepts: natural-circulation boiling water, sodiumgraphite, and organic cooled and moderated, respectively. The post-construction testing period included the time between the end of construction (erection of structures and installation of equipment) and the beginning of power operation (generation of significant net electrical power). The tests were intended to: (a) verify the performance characteristics of the as-installed equipment; (b) obtain initial criticality and reactivity coefficient measurements; and (c) determine reactor physics and plant performance characteristics at a sequence of increasing power levels. .The experience gained can be reported in six separate but interrelated categories: (1) schedule; (2) costs; (3) staffing requirements; (4) procedures; (5) equipment performance (including malfunctions); and (6) actual, as compared to predicted, system performance characteristics. The average project staffing, including craftsmen, operators, supervisors, technical support and trainees, was approximately 50 for ERR, 115 for HNPF, and 60 for PNPF. Detailed written Pre-operational Test Procedures were prepared for each major component and system. To the maximum possible extent, all tests were performed before fuel loading and operation of the integrated plant. Authorization procedures (duplicates of the licensing procedures for non-USAEC-owned plants) were in progress during almost all of the post-construction testing periods. The time required for post-construction testing of each of these plants significantly exceeded the original estimates. The tests disclosed numerous, observed or suspected, deficiencies or malfunctions of components which led to additional testing and analyses. In some instances, repair or modification of components was necessary to correct fabrication or engineering errors. Major problem areas are discussed: Elk River Reactor. Discovery of cracks in portions of the reactor vessel surface cladding led to extensive investigations and analyses and required some repairs and vessel modifications. Insufficient steam separation capacity required replacement and modification of some reactor vessel internal hardware. Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. Entrainment of the helium cover gas led to modifications of the secondary sodium loops. Failure of a tube in the intermediate (sodium to sodium) heat exchanger led to analyses to determine the cause of failure followed by removal and repair of the heat exchanger. Piqua Nuclear Power Facility. Chemical cleaning of the piping system damaged several valves which required mere repair or replacement. Leaks in the organic coolant and steam tracing systems caused repeated delays. After completion of the necessary repairs and modifications, the actual performance characteristics of each of the three reactors closely matched design predictions. (author) [French] Les resultats des essais apres construction de trois centrales nucleaires, dans le cadre du programme de demonstration des centrales nucleaires de la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis (CEA-EU), permettront peut-etre de faire certaines generalisations concernant cette phase de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales. Ces trois centrales, le reacteur de puissance d'Elk River (ERR), la centrale nucleaire de Hallam (HNPF), et la centrale nucleaire de Piqua (PNPF), appartiennent a trois filieres differentes: reacteur a eau bouillante a circulation naturelle, reacteur a graphite et a sodium et reacteur ralenti et refroidi par un fluide organique. La periode des essais apres construction a commence a la fin de la construction (erection des batiments et installation du materiel) et s'est terminee au debut du fonctionnement en puissance (production nette de courant electrique appreciable). Les essais avaient pour but: a) de verifier les performances du materiel ainsi installe; b) de mesurer les valeurs initiales des coefficients d'etat critique et de reactivite; c) de determiner les parametres de physique dies reacteurs et les performances de l'installation a differents niveaux de puissance progressivement croissants. L 'experience acquise peut etre decrite sous six rubriques distinctes mais apparentees: 1. calendrier; 2. couts; 3. besoins en personnel; 4, methodes; 5. performances du materiel (y compris le mauvais fonctionnement); 6. performances reelles de la filiere par rapport aux previsions. Les effectifs moyens pour chaque installation, y compris les ouvriers, les operateurs, les cadres superieurs, le personnel technique d'appui et les stagiaires sont d 'environ 50 personnes pour l'ERR, 115 pour l'HNPF, et 60 pour le PNPF. Des listes detaillees d'essais a effectuer avant fonctionnement ont ete preparees pour chaque piece et partie constitutive importante. Autant que possible on a procede a tous les essais avant de charger le reacteur et de mettre en route l'ensemble de l'installation. Les demandes d'autorisations (correspondant aux demandes de permis pour les installations qui n'appartiennent pas a la CEA-EU) ont ete instruites pendant presque toute la periode des essais apres construction. Le temps necessaire pour les essais apres construction de chacune de ces centrales a ete nettement plus long que prevu. Les essais ont mis en evidence de nombreux defauts ou vices de construction des pieces, constates ou supposes, qui ont necessite des essais et des analyses supplementaires. Dans certains cas, il a fallu reparer ou modifier des pieces pour porter remede a des defauts de fabrication ou des erreurs techniques. Les principaux defauts releves ont ete les suivants: Reacteur de puissance d'Elk River. On a decouvert des craquelures dans certaines parties du revetement du caisson du reacteur. Il a fallu faire des recherches et des analyses poussees ainsi que des reparations et apporter des modifications a la cuve. La capacite de separation de la vapeur etait insuffisante; il a fallu remplacer et modifier certaines parties du circuit a l'interieur du caisson. Centrale nucleaire de Hallam. On a constate que de l'helium etait entzaihe dans le sodium, et il a fallu modifier le circuit secondaire du sodium. On a decouvert une defaillance d'un tube dans l'echangeur de chaleur intermediaire (sodium-sodium); il a fallu proceder a des analyses pour en rechercher la cause, et demonter l'echangeur pour le reparer. Centrale nucleaire de Piqua. En nettoyant les canalisations avec des produits chimiques, on a endommage plusieurs vannes et il a fallu soit les reparer soit les remplacer. Des fuites dans le circuit du fluide de refroidissement organique et dans le circuit de rechauffage par circulation de vapeur ont provoque des retards repetes. Une fois terminees les reparations et apportees les modifications necessaires, les performances de chacun des trois reacteurs concordaient etroitement avec les predictions des plans. (author) [Spanish] La experiencia adquirida directamente en los ensayos efectuados despues de terminada la construccion de las tres centrales nucleoelectricas del programa de demostracion de reactores de potencia de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos permite deducir ciertos principios generales acerca de esta fase de la construccion y explotacion de las centrales. Las tres instalaciones, a saber, el reactor de Elk River (ERR), la central nucleoelectrica de Hallam (HNPF) y la central nucleoelectrica de Piqua (PNPF), representan tres conceptos diferentes en materia de reactores: el de agua hirviente con circulacion natural, el de sodio-grafito y el de moderador y refrigerante organicos, respectivamente. El periodo de ensayos comenzo al concluirse la obra (construccion de las estructuras e instalacion de los equipos) y se termino con la iniciacion del desarrollo de potencia (produccion neta de una cantidad apreciable de energia electrica). Los ensayos tenian por finalidad: a) verificar las caracteristicas de funcionamiento del equipo instalado, b) determinar las condiciones de criticidad y el coenciente de reactividad y c) determinar los parametros fisicos del reactor y las caracteristicas de rendimiento de la central para una serie creciente de valores de la potencia. La experiencia adquirida puede agruparseren seis categorias de datos distintos pero relacionados entre si: 1) calendario, 2) costos, 3) necesidades de personal, 4) metodos, 5) comportamiento del equipo (incluso defectos) y 6) caracteristicas reales de rendimiento del sistema y comparacion con los valores calculados. En promedio, la plantilla de cada instalacion, incluyendo operarios, operadores, jefes, tecnicos auxiliares y aprendices, comprende unas 50 personas para el ERR, 115 para el HNPF y 60 para el PNPF. Para cada seccion y circuito importante se prepararon normas detalladas de ensayos previos. Dentro de lo posible, todas las pruebas se realizaron antes de cargar el combustible y de iniciar la explotacion de la central incorporada a la red. Los tramites de autorizacion (identicos a los de concesion de permisos para las centrales no dependientes de la USAEC) siguieron su curso durante casi todo el periodo de ensayos posteriores a la construccion. El tiempo exigido por los ensayos mencionados en cada una de las centrales excedio apreciablemente del calculado en un principio. La pruebas pusieron en evidencia numerosos defectos, ya comprobados o supuestos, de construccion o de funcionamiento de ciertos elementos, que obligaron a realizar nuevos ensayos y estudios. En algunos casos, hubo que reparar o modificar partes de la instalacion para subsanar defectos de fabricacion o errores de calculo. He aqui los principales defectos hallados: Reactor de Elk River. Se descubrieron grietas en parte del revestimiento superficial del recipiente del reactor; ello obligo a efectuar una serie de investigaciones y analisis, asi como ciertas reparaciones y modificaciones del recipiente. La insuficiente capacidad de separacion de vapor obligo a sustituir y modificar algunas piezas metalicas en el interior del recipiente del reactor. Central nucleoelectrica de Hallam. Debido al arrastre de helio, hubo que modificar los circuitos secundarios de sodio. La falla de un tubo del intercambiador de calor intermedio (sodio-sodio) obligo a llevar a cabo una serie de analisis para descubrir su causa y extraer y reparar el intercambiador. Central nucleoelectrica de Piqua. Durante la limpieza de las tuberias con agentes quimicos, se dallaron varias valvulas que fue preciso reparar o sustituir. Las fugas en el circuito del refrigerante organico y del vapor secundario provocaron demoras repetidas. Una vez concluidas las reparaciones e introducidas las modificaciones necesarias, se comprobo que las caracteristicas de rendimiento reales de cada uno de los tres reactores se ajustaban estrictamente a las previstas en el proyecto. (author) [Russian] Fakticheskij opyt, nakoplennyj vo vremya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij trekh yadernykh ehnergeticheskikh ustanovok, postroennykh po demonstratsionnoj programme ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii Soedinennykh Shtatov, pozvolyaet sdelat' nekotorye obobshcheniya v otnoshenii ehtoj fazy stroitel'stva i ehkspluatatsii ustanovok. Tri ustanovki, a imenno Ehlk-riverskij reaktor (ERR), Khehllemskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka (HNPF) i Pikuaskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka (PNPF), predstavlyayut tri razlichnykh tipa reaktorov: reaktor s kipyashej vodoj s estestvennoj tsirkulyatsiej, natrievo-grafitovyj reaktor i reaktor s organicheskim teplonositelem i zamedlitelem sootvetstvenno. Period predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij okhvatyvaet vremya mezhdu okonchaniem stroitel'stva (sooruzhenie ehdakij i ustanovka oborudovaniya) i nachalom ehkspluatatsii na moshchnosti (proizvodstvo znachitel'nogo kolichestva ehlektricheskoj ehnergii netto). Ispytaniya presledovali sleduyushchie tseli: 1) proverit' rabochie kharakteristiki ustanovlennogo oborudovaniya; 2) opredelit' nachal'nuyu kritichnost' i koehffitsient reaktivnosti i 3) opredelit' fizicheskie kharakteristiki reaktora i rabochie kharakteristiki ustanovki po mere uvelicheniya moshchnosti. Nakoplennyj opyt mokhet byt' izlozhen v shesti otdel'nykh, no vzaimosvyazannykh razdelakh: 11 programma; 2) stoimost'; 3) potrebnosti v kadrakh; 4) tekhnologiya provedeniya ispytanij; 5) rabota oborudovaniya (vklyuchaya nepoladki) i 6) fakticheskie (po sravneniyu s raschetnymi) kharakteristiki raboty sistemy. Srednyaya proektnaya chislennost' personala, vklyuchaya rabochikh, operatorov, dozimetristov, vspomogatel'nyj tekhnicheskij personal i stazherov, sostavlyaet: dlya ERR - 50, dlya HNPF - 115 i dlya PNPF - 60 chelovek. Podrobnaya tekhnologiya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij v pis'mennom vide byla podgotovlenv dlya kazhdogo vazhnogo komponenta i kazhdoj sistemy ustanovki. Naskol'ko ehto bylo vozmozhno, vse ispytaniya byli provedeny do zagruzki topliva i nachala ehkspluatatsii vsej ustanovki. Oformlenie razreshenij na ehkpluatatsiyu ustanovok (dublikaty litsenzij na neprinadlezhashchie KAEH SSHA ustanovki) zanyalo pochti vse vremya provedeniya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij. Vremya, potrebovavsheesya dlya provedeniya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij kazhdoj iz ehtikh ustanovok, znachitel'no prevysilo pervonachal'no namechennoe vremya. Ispytaniya vskryli ryad yavnykh i predpolagaemykh neispravnostej komponentov, v rezul'tate chego potrebovalos' provesti dopolnitel'nye ispytaniya i analizy. V ryade sluchaev dlya ispravleniya oshibok, dopushchennykh pri izgotovlenii ili konstruirovanii oborudovaniya, komponenty prishlos' remontirovat' ili vidoizmenyat'. Osnovnymi nepoladkami byli: Ehlk-riverskij reaktor. V nekotorykh chastyakh baka reaktora obnaruzheny treshchiny, chto potrebovalo obshirnykh issledovanij i analizov, a takzhe nekotorogo remonta i modifikatsii baka. Nedostatochnaya proizvoditel'nost' parootdelitelya potrebovala zameny k modifikatsii nekotorykh metallicheskikh detalej baka reaktora. Khehldemskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka. Uvlechenie zashchitnogo gaza geliya privelo k neobkhodimosti modifitsirovat' vtorichnye natrievye kontury. Povrezhdenie truboprovoda v promezhutochnom natrievo-natrievom; teploobmennike potrebovalo provedeniya analizov dlya opredeleniya prichiny povrezhdeniya, vsled za chem posledovalo izvlechenie i remont teploobmennika. Pikuaskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka. Pri khimicheskoj ochistke sistemy truboprovodov povrezhdeno neskol'ko ventilej, chto potrebovalo ikh remonta ili zameny. Utechki v sisteme organicheskogo teplonositelya i v sisteme indikatsii para priveli k povtornym zaderzhkam. Posle okonchaniya neobkhodimogo remonta i vneseniya izmenenij fakticheskie rabochie kharakteristiki kazhdogo iz trekh reaktorov priblizilis' vplotnuyu k proektnym raschetam. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Oct}
}