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Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados

Conference:

Abstract

Laboratory tests indicated that an X-ray dose of 3000 r was sufficient to induce sterility in male cockchafers. During two flight periods, sterilized males were released among a natural population in order to eliminate white grubs in a general farming region of north-western Switzerland. In 1950 an outbreak of this pest was reduced by a chemical treatment. Gradation had been watched during every flight from 1953 to 1962. In 1959 five areas, each with a surface of about 30 ha, were selected to serve as: (a) The treated area, where the males were captured, irradiated and released; (b) The ''bank,'' where cockchafers were collected and the males were irradiated for release in area a; and (c) Control areas, where undisturbed gradation was observed. The males were irradiated in a therapeutical X-ray unit. Irradiated males were hand-painted in order to estimate the ratio of sterilized males by means of the isotopic dilution technique. In 1959, for the first treatment, about 6 l of sterilized males, representing about 50% of the male population, were released in (a).The white grub infestation sampled in grassland dropped thereafter to about twothirds of that in the other areas. The reproduction rate was less than unity only  More>>
Authors:
Horber, E. [1] 
  1. Swiss Experimental Station for Agriculture, Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Sep 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, Athens (Greece), 22-26 Apr 1963; Other Information: 4 figs., 10 tabs., 18 refs.; Related Information: In: Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests| 526 p.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BREEDING; INSECTS; ISOTOPE DILUTION; MALES; MORTALITY; PEST CONTROL; RADIATION DOSES; RANGELANDS; REPRODUCTION; STERILE MALE TECHNIQUE; STERILITY; X RADIATION
OSTI ID:
22100735
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13R0295058783
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 313-332
Announcement Date:
Jun 06, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Horber, E. Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Horber, E. Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados. IAEA.
Horber, E. 1963. "Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22100735,
title = {Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados}
author = {Horber, E.}
abstractNote = {Laboratory tests indicated that an X-ray dose of 3000 r was sufficient to induce sterility in male cockchafers. During two flight periods, sterilized males were released among a natural population in order to eliminate white grubs in a general farming region of north-western Switzerland. In 1950 an outbreak of this pest was reduced by a chemical treatment. Gradation had been watched during every flight from 1953 to 1962. In 1959 five areas, each with a surface of about 30 ha, were selected to serve as: (a) The treated area, where the males were captured, irradiated and released; (b) The ''bank,'' where cockchafers were collected and the males were irradiated for release in area a; and (c) Control areas, where undisturbed gradation was observed. The males were irradiated in a therapeutical X-ray unit. Irradiated males were hand-painted in order to estimate the ratio of sterilized males by means of the isotopic dilution technique. In 1959, for the first treatment, about 6 l of sterilized males, representing about 50% of the male population, were released in (a).The white grub infestation sampled in grassland dropped thereafter to about twothirds of that in the other areas. The reproduction rate was less than unity only in (a). A further reduction of the population in (a) to one-tenth of that in (b) and (c) was observed when the number of surviving cockchafers was estimated in 1962. The greatest mortality from 1959 to 1962 occurred in (a). In 1962, for the second treatment, a total of 17 l of irradiated males was released in (a). At least 76% of the male population of (a) had been sterilized. The following sampling of the white grub population showed complete eradication in (a). Some reduction was also observed in (b) and (c) due to drought in the whole region. It has been demonstrated that the sterile-male technique may successfully be applied to an insect pest in an area which is not strictly isolated geographically, the females of which mate several times and the breeding of which in large masses is not feasible because of the long breeding cycle. (author) [French] Des essais en laboratoire ont montre qu'une dose de rayons X de 3000 r suffit pour steriliser les hannetons males. Des males sterilises ont ete laches, au cours de deux apparitions, dans une population naturelle en vue d'eliminer les vers blancs dans une region essentiellement agricole du nord-ouest de la Suisse. En 1950, une invasion de hannetons avait pu etre enrayee i l'aide d'un traitement chimique. L'evolution ulterieure a ete observee a chaque apparition, de 1953 a 1962. En 1959, on a choisi cinq zones d'environ 30 hectares chacune, reparties en trois categories: a) Zone traitee, oue les males etaient captures, irradies et relaches; b) Zone de reserve, ou les hannetons etaient ramasses, les males irradies et relaches en a; c) Zones temoins, ou l'on observait l'evolution naturelle. L'irradiation des males etait effectuee dans un appareil de roentgentherapie. Les males irradies recevaient des marques peintes a la main, afin de pouvoir evaluer la proportion de males steriles par la methode de dilution isotopique. En 1959, annee du premier traitement, on a relache en a) environ 6 l de males sterilises, ce qui representait pres de 50% de la population male. D'apres les echantillons preleves dam les pres, le nombre de ven blancs n'etait plus par la suite que les deux tiers de leur nombre dans les autres zones. Le taux de reproduction n'etait Inferieur a l'unite que dans la zone a). En evaluant le nombre des hannetons survivants en 1962, on a constate que la population de a) etait tombee a un dixieme de celle de b) et c). C'est en a) que la mortalite a ete la plus elevee entre 1959 et 1962. En 1962, annee du deuxieme traitement, on a relache en a) 17 l de males irradies. La population male de a) avait ete sterilisee dans la proportion d'au moins 76%. Les echantillons preleves par la suite ont montre que l'eradication des vers blancs en a) etait absolue. On a egalement observe une certaine diminution des larves en b) et c), due a la secheresse qui regnait dans toute la region. Il a ete demontre que la methode du lacher de males steriles peut etre appliquee avec succes dans la lutte contre un insecte nuisible qui se trouve dans une region qui n'est pas strictement isolee du point de vue geographique, dont les femelles s'apparient plusieurs fois et dont l'elevage en masse est impossible en raison de la duree du cycle evolutif. (author) [Spanish] Ensayos realizados en laboratorio indicaron que para esterilizar a los abejorros machos basta con una dosis de rayos X de 3000 roentgens. Durante dos periodos de vuelo se soltaron machos esterilizados en una region agricola del noroeste de Suiza con objeto de erradicar las larvas. En 1950 esta plaga habia sido combatida con procedimientos quimicos. Entre 1953 y 1962 se observo la actividad en todos los vueles. En 1959 se seleccionaron cinco zonas de 30 hectareas cada una que sirvieron de: a) Zona de tratamiento, en la que se capturaron, irradiaron y soltaron machos; b) Zona de reserva, en la que se recogieron abejorros y se irradiaron machos que se soltaron en a); c) Zonas de control, en las que se observo la actividad normal. Los machos fueron irradiados con un aparato terapeutico de rayos X. Despues de la irradiacion se les puso una marca de color para poder calcular su porcentaje mediante la tecnica de dilucion isotopica. En 1959, durante el primer tratamiento, se soltaron en la zona a unos 6 l de machos esterilizados, lo que representaba aproximadamente el 50% del total de machos de dicha zona. La cantidad de larvas recogidas en los prados despues del tratamiento represento unos 2/3 de la correspondiente a las zonas de control. La razon de reproduccion solo fue inferior a la unidad en la zona a). Cuando se calculo, en 1962, el numero de abejorros supervivientes se observo que en la zona a habia disminuido hasta 1/10 en comparacion con las zonas b) y c). De 1959 a 1962 la cifra mas elevada de mortalidad se observo en la zona a). En 1962 se procedio en esta zona a un segundo tratamiento para el que se soltaron 17 l de machos irradiados. Se habia esterilizado el 76% por lo menos de los machos. El nuevo muestreo de larvas demostro que en la zona a) el exterminio habia sido completo. Debido a la sequia que reino en toda la region se observaron tambien disminuciones en las zonas b) y c). Se ha demostrado que la tecnica de los machos esterilizados puede aplicarse con exito a insectos de una region que no este estrictamente aislada desde el punto de vista geografico, cuyas hembras copulen varias veces, y que no sea posible criar en grandes cantidades debido a la larga duracion de su ciclo de reproduccion. (author) [Russian] Laboratornye ispytaniya pokazyvayut, chto doza 30 00 r dostatochna dlya sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej majskogo khuka. V techenie dvukh vyletov sterilizovannye samtsy vypuskalis' na volyu sredi neoblucheknykh populyatsij dlya likvidatsii khrushchej v rajone s nespetsializirovannym sel'skim khozyajstvom, raspolozhennom v severo-zapadnoj SHvejtsarii. V 1950 godu shirokoe rasprostranenie ehtikh vreditelej bylo predotvrashcheno primineniem khimikalij. Sparivaniya nablyudalis' pri vylete s 1953 po 1962 god. V 1959 godu byli otvedeny pyat' uchastkov ploshchad'yu 30 ga, na kotorykh sozdali: A - ehksperimental'nyj uchastok, na kotorom muzhskie osobi vylavlivalis', obluchalis' i vypuskalis' snova na volyu; B - uchastok dlya razvedeniya, gde majskie zhuki sobiralis', ikh muzhskie osobi obluchalis' i vypuskalis' na uchastok A; V - kontrol'nye uchastki, gde nablyudalis' sparivaniya bez vneshnego vmeshatel'stva. Samtsy obluchalis' na obychnoj terapevticheskoj rentgenovskoj ustanovke. Obluchennye samtsy okrashivalis' vruchnuyu dlya opredeleniya proportsii sterilizovannykh samtsov metodom izotopnogo razvedeniya. V 1959 godu v kachestve pervogo opyta na uchastok A bylo vypushcheno okolo 6 l sterilizovannykh samtsov, chto sostavlyalo okolo 50% vsej populyatsii samtsov. Proby, vzyatye s pastbishch, pokazali, chto zarazhenie khrushchami sokratilos' priblizitel'no na 1 /3 po sravneniyu s drugimi uchastkami. Koehffitsient razmnozheniya byl men'she edinitsy tol'ko na uchastke A. Kogda v 1962 godu byla proizvedena otsenka chisla vyzhivshikh majskikh zhukov, to na uchastke A bylo obnaruzheno dal'nejshee sokrashchenie populyatsii na 1 /1 0 po sravneniyu s uchastkami B i V. Naibol'shaya smertnost' s 1959 do 1962 goda nablyudalas' na uchastke A. V 1962 godu dlya vtorogo opyta na uchastke A bylo vypuveno 17 l obluchennykh samtsov. Po men'shej mere, 76% populyatsii samtsov na uchastke A bylo sterilizovano. Posleduyushchee opredelenie populyatsii khrushchej pokazalo ikh polnoe istreblenie ka uchastke A. Nekotoroe sokrashchenie nablyudalos' takzhe na uchastkakh B i V v rezul'tate zasukhi v ehtom rajone. Bylo pokazano, chto metod sterilizatsii samtsov mozhet s uspekhom primenyat'sya ka uchastke bez strogoj geograficheskoj izolyatsii dlya bor'by s nasekomymi-vreditelyami, samki kotorykh sparivayutsya po neskol'ku raz v sezon i razvedenie kotorykh v bol'shikh kolichestvakh neosushchestvimo vvidu znachitel'noj prodolzhitel'nosti tsikla ikh vyvedeniya. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Sep}
}