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Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa

Conference:

Abstract

The larva of Diparopsis watersi Roth is harmful to the cotton-plant, destroying the flower and the boll. This noctuid, which is practically monophagous, passes the quiescent season either in the ground in the chrysalid-at-diapause form (from 10 November onwards) or in continuing generation (polyvoltine) on plants left standing. Laboratory studies have served to elucidate the main mechanisms initiating and terminating diapause. In the field, the rapid multiplication of the pest during the crop period is due both to univoltine individuals hatching out towards April-May and to non-diapause generations. The respective roles played by these two different sources need to be determined fairly accurately in order to decide which methods of control are appropriate: uprooting of the cotton-plant, destruction of the pupae at diapause in the ground, bringing the crop forward, etc. Radioisotope labelling of larvae coming to maturity at critical periods should make it possible to tackle this problem at the practical level. Preliminary experiments for determining simple labelling techniques have been carried out at Tikem (Republic of Chad). In a first trial, P{sup 32} in atomized solution was applied direct to the foliage of young cottonplants. Despite the effects of rain, absorption by the plant reached about 10% in  More>>
Authors:
Delattre, R. [1] 
  1. Institut de Recherches du Coton et Textiles, Paris (France)
Publication Date:
Sep 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, Athens (Greece), 22-26 Apr 1963; Other Information: 2 tabs.; Related Information: In: Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests| 526 p.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORPTION; BOLLWORM; CHAD; COTTON PLANTS; LABELLING; LARVAE; PHOSPHORUS 32; SULFUR 35
OSTI ID:
22100715
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13R0275058763
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 85-92
Announcement Date:
Jun 06, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Delattre, R. Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Delattre, R. Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa. IAEA.
Delattre, R. 1963. "Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22100715,
title = {Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa}
author = {Delattre, R.}
abstractNote = {The larva of Diparopsis watersi Roth is harmful to the cotton-plant, destroying the flower and the boll. This noctuid, which is practically monophagous, passes the quiescent season either in the ground in the chrysalid-at-diapause form (from 10 November onwards) or in continuing generation (polyvoltine) on plants left standing. Laboratory studies have served to elucidate the main mechanisms initiating and terminating diapause. In the field, the rapid multiplication of the pest during the crop period is due both to univoltine individuals hatching out towards April-May and to non-diapause generations. The respective roles played by these two different sources need to be determined fairly accurately in order to decide which methods of control are appropriate: uprooting of the cotton-plant, destruction of the pupae at diapause in the ground, bringing the crop forward, etc. Radioisotope labelling of larvae coming to maturity at critical periods should make it possible to tackle this problem at the practical level. Preliminary experiments for determining simple labelling techniques have been carried out at Tikem (Republic of Chad). In a first trial, P{sup 32} in atomized solution was applied direct to the foliage of young cottonplants. Despite the effects of rain, absorption by the plant reached about 10% in a few hours. Radioactivity is not retained by various phyllophagous larvae (Sylepta derogata, Prodenia litura), but those feeding on the fruit-bearing parts of the plant (Heliothis armigera, Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, etc.) are easily detectable three months after the application. In a second trial, P{sup 32} and S{sup 35} were applied to old cotton-plants immediately before the natural time for Diparopsis to enter diapause. The overall findings give hope of being able to distinguish without too much difficulty, among chrysalid populations taken from the ground, those which fed on the cotton-plant before labelling, and hence which underwent a diapause. A control experiment will now be required, consisting of labelling, during the season, cotton-plants in a field where cotton was also grown the previous year; this time non-diapause chrysalids will be labelled. Similar observations are also being performed on a number of other cotton-plant pests. (author) [French] Le chenille de Diparopsis wacersi Roth est nuisible au cotonnier en detruisant fleurs et capsules. Cette noctuelle, pratiquement monophage, passe l'inter-saison, soit dans le sol sous forme de chrysalides en-diapause a partir du 10 novembre, soit par des generations continues (polyvoltines) sur les plants non arraches. Des etudes de laboratoire ont permis d'elucider les principaux mecanismes declenchant la diapause et y mettant fin. Dans la nature, les pullulations en cours de culture s'etablissent a partir d'individus univoltins venant a eclosion vers avril-mai aussi bien que des generations sans diapause; la participation respective de ces deux souches differentes devrait etre determinee assez exactement pour connaitre les moyens de lutte appropries: arrachage du cotonnier, destruction des pupes en diapause dans le sol, avancement de la campagne, etc. Le marquage par des radioisotopes des chenilles venant a maturite aux epoques critiques devrait permettre de serrer ce probleme sur le plan pratique. Des experiences preliminaires ont eu lieu a Tikem (Republique de Tchad) en vue de determiner des techniques de marquage simples. Dans un premier essai, {sup 32}P a ete applique en pulverisation aqueuse directe sur le feuillage de cotonniers jeunes. Malgre la pluie, l'absorption fut de 10% environ par la plante en quelques heures. Diverses chenilles phyllophages (Sylepta derogata, Prodenia litura) ne retiennent pas de radioactivite, mais les chenilles qui se nourrissent d'organes fructiferes (Heliothis armigera, Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, etc.) sont facilement detectable trois mois apres l'application. Dans un deuxieme essai, {sup 32}P et {sup 35}S ont ete appliques sur des cotonniers ages, juste avant la periode de mise en diapause naturelle de Diparopsis. Les resultats d'ensemble laissent esperer que l'on pourra sans trop de difficultes distinguer, parmi les populations de chrysalides prelevees dans le sol, celles nourries sur le cotonnier avant qu'il ne soit marque, donc qui auront subi une diapause. Une contre-experience sera ensuite necessaire; elle consistera a marquer, en cours de saison, les cotonniers d'un champ ayant deja porte la meme culture Tannee precedente, les chrysalides sans diapause etant cette fois marquees. Des observations annexes sont egalement en cours sur divers autres parasites du cotonnier. (author) [Spanish] La oruga de Diparopsis watersi Roth es perjudicial para el algodonero, pues destruye sus flores y capsulas. Este noctuido, practicamente monofago, pasa el periodo interestacional bien en el suelo en forma de crisalidas en diapausa a partir del 10 de noviembre, bien por generaciones continuas (especies que se reproducen varias veces al ano) en las plantas sin arrancar. Los estudios de laboratorio han permitido dilucidar los principales mecanismos que determinan e l comienzo y el fin de la diapausa. En la naturaleza, las pululaciones durante el cultivo provienen de individuos de una sola generacion al ano, que alcanzan la eclosion hacia abril o mayo, asi como de generaciones sin diapausa. Deberia averiguarse con suficiente exactitud el papel que desempenan estas dos cepas diferentes, para determinar los medios de lucha mas apropiados: arranque del algodonero, destruccion de las ninfas durante la diapausa en el suelo, anticipacion de la campana, etc. La marcacion radioisotopica de las orugas que alcanzan la madurez en las epocas criticas permitiria seguramente abordar este problema en el plano practico. En Tikem (Republica del Chad) se han realizado experimentos preliminares para preparar tecnicas sencillas de marcacion. En el primer ensayo se aplico {sup 32}P en pulverizacion acuosa directa sobre el follaje de algodoneros jovenes. Hay orugas filofagas (Silepta derogata, Prodenia litura) que no retienen la radiactividad, pero las que se alimentan de organos fructiferos (Heliothis armigera, Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, etc.) se pueden detectar facilmente tres meses despues de la pulverizacion. En el segundo ensayo se aplicaron {sup 32}P y {sup 35}S a algodoneros viejos, inmediatamente antes de comenzar el periodo de diapausa natural de Diparopsis. Los resultados obtenidos hacen pensar que no sera muy dificil distinguir, entre las poblaciones de crisalidas recogidas del suelo, las que se han nutrido en el algodonero antes de ser marcado, es decir, las que habran sufrido una diapausa. (author) [Russian] Gusenitsa Diparopsis watersi (Roth) nanosit vred khlopchatniku, unichtozhaya tsvet i korobochku. Ehta,prakticheski,monofagovaya sovka provodit mezhsezonnyj period libo v zemle v vide kukolki v sostoyanii diapauzy, nachinaya s 10 noyabrya, libo v vide novykh (polivol'tinnykh) pokolenij na ne vykopannykh iz zemli rasteniyakh. Laboratornye issledovaniya pozvolili vyyasnit' osnovnye mekhanizmy vozniknoveniya i prekrashcheniya diapauzy. V prirode intensivnoe razmnozhenie pri razvedenii kul'tur proiskhodit u odnikh osobej s odnim pokoleniem v god, vyplansivayushchikhsya k aprelyu-mayu, u vtorykh - poyavlenie pokolenij bez diapauzy; otnositel'nuyu rol' ehtikh dvukh razlichnykh vetvej osobej sledovalo by tochno opredelit' dlya vybora metoda bor'by: vykorchevka khlopchatnika, unichtozhenie kukolok v sostoyanii diapauzy v zemle, sokrashchenie srokov sel'skokhozyajstvennoj kampanii i t.d. Mechenie radioizotopami gusenits, kotorye v kriticheskij period dostigayut zrelosti, dolzhno suzit' ehtu problemu v prakticheskom plane. V Tikeme (Respublike Chad) byli provedeny predvaritel'nye opyty dlya opredeleniya prostykh metodov mecheniya. V pervom opyte byl ispol'zovan P{sup 32} pri pryamom vodnom obryzgivanii listvy molodogo khlopchatnika. Nesmotrya na dozhd', pogloshchenie rasteniem v techenie neskol'kikh chasov sostavlyalo okolo 10%. Razlichnye fillofagovye gusenitsy (Sylepta derogata, Prodenla litura) He nakaplivayut radioaktivnosti, odnako pitayushchiesya plodonosnymi organami gusenitsy (Heliothis armigera. Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, i t.d.) legko obnaruzhivayutsya spustya tri mesyatsa posle primeneniya ehtogo metoda. Vo vtorom opyte P{sup 35} i S{sup 35} byli ispol'zovany dlya vzroslykh kustov khlopchatnika kak raz nakanune perioda estestvennogo perekhoda Diparopsis v diapauzu. Rezul'taty pozvolyayut nadeyat'sya na to, chto udastsya bez izlishnikh trudnostej vyyavit' sredi iz{sup y}atykh iz zemli kukolok tekh, kotorye pitalis' khlopchatnikom do ego mecheniya i kotorye poehtomu projdut diapauzu. Neobkhodimo provedenie obratnoj proverki, kotoraya sostoit v tom, chtoby v techenie sezona pometit' khlopchatnik na pole, uzhe nakhodivshemsya pod ehtoj kul'turoj v proshlom godu. V dannom sluchae kukolka bez diapauzy okazyvaetsya mechenoj. V nastoyashchee vremya provodyatsya takzhe dopolnitel'nye nablyudeniya za drugimi vreditelyami khlopchatnika. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Sep}
}