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Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

Abstract

The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3})  More>>
Authors:
Row, T. H. [1] 
  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Dec 15, 1968
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-110/26
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Operating and Developmental Experience in the Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes, New York, NY (United States), 26-30 Aug 1968; Other Information: 8 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.; Related Information: In: Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of a Symposium on Operating and Developmental Experience in the Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes| 835 p.
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; DESIGN BASIS ACCIDENTS; DISTRIBUTION; DOSES; HYDROGEN; IODINE; LIQUIDS; LOSS OF COOLANT; METHYL IODIDE; NUCLEAR SAFETY PILOT PLANT; ORNL; REMOVAL; SODIUM HYDROXIDES; SPRAYS
OSTI ID:
22100704
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); United States Atomic Energy Commission, Germantown, MD (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M0392058752
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 587-603
Announcement Date:
Jun 06, 2013

Citation Formats

Row, T. H. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program. IAEA: N. p., 1968. Web.
Row, T. H. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program. IAEA.
Row, T. H. 1968. "Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22100704,
title = {Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program}
author = {Row, T. H.}
abstractNote = {The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss of I{sub 2} equivalence, change in pH, solids formation, and H{sub 2} generation for accident doses. The 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH produces 2.6 x 10{sup -1}cm{sup 3}/ml of H{sub 2} at a dose of 4 x 10{sup 7}R with a gas-to-liquid ratio of 25. Dose rate has no effect on the H{sub 2} production under the same conditions, while the addition of 1 wt% [NO{sub 3}] reduced the H{sub 2} production by a factor of 2. The study of H{sub 2} generation has been expanded due to the relatively large amounts produced. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1968}
month = {Dec}
}