You need JavaScript to view this

Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio

Conference:

Abstract

The radioactive isotopes of ruthenium, Ru{sup 103} (t1/2 = 40 d) and Ru{sup 106}(t1/2 = 1 yr), are formed in relatively high yield as a result of nuclear fission of U{sup 235}. There is almost no information on the metabolism of ruthenium by man and the following considerations are based on investigations with rats and rabbits. The nature and extent of the hazard from radioruthenium will depend not only on the circumstances of contamination but also on the physical and chemical state of the ruthenium; Ru{sup 106} administered orally as the dioxide is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract to a negligible extent when it is in a particulate form with carrier present but when given as a colloid in the absence of carrier, uptake is similar to that which follows administration of the chloride (3-5%). Nitrato-derivatives of nitrosyl ruthenium may be absorbed to an even greater extent (an average of 13% is absorbed by rabbits). Absorption by rats, which are not fasted, is complete within one hour of an intragastric dose. The limited period of absorption may be explained in terms of the rate of gastric emptying and combination of ruthenium with the contents of the gut. When rats are  More>>
Authors:
Bruce, R. S. [1] 
  1. Radiobiological Research Council, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Feb 15, 1963
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Scientific meeting on the diagnosis and treatment of radioactive poisoning, Vienna (Austria), 15-18 Oct 1962; Other Information: 19 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs; Related Information: In: Diagnosis and treatment of radioactive poisoning. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on the diagnosis and treatment of radioactive poisoning| 468 p.
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE; BLOOD SERUM; CONTAMINATION; DTPA; EDTA; EXCRETION; HEALTH HAZARDS; INTRAVENOUS INJECTION; KIDNEYS; METABOLISM; PROTEINS; RATS; RUTHENIUM 103; RUTHENIUM 106; SMALL INTESTINE; URANIUM 235; URINE
OSTI ID:
22097083
Research Organizations:
World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13S0055055227
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 207-224
Announcement Date:
May 23, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Bruce, R. S. Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio. IAEA: N. p., 1963. Web.
Bruce, R. S. Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio. IAEA.
Bruce, R. S. 1963. "Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22097083,
title = {Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio}
author = {Bruce, R. S.}
abstractNote = {The radioactive isotopes of ruthenium, Ru{sup 103} (t1/2 = 40 d) and Ru{sup 106}(t1/2 = 1 yr), are formed in relatively high yield as a result of nuclear fission of U{sup 235}. There is almost no information on the metabolism of ruthenium by man and the following considerations are based on investigations with rats and rabbits. The nature and extent of the hazard from radioruthenium will depend not only on the circumstances of contamination but also on the physical and chemical state of the ruthenium; Ru{sup 106} administered orally as the dioxide is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract to a negligible extent when it is in a particulate form with carrier present but when given as a colloid in the absence of carrier, uptake is similar to that which follows administration of the chloride (3-5%). Nitrato-derivatives of nitrosyl ruthenium may be absorbed to an even greater extent (an average of 13% is absorbed by rabbits). Absorption by rats, which are not fasted, is complete within one hour of an intragastric dose. The limited period of absorption may be explained in terms of the rate of gastric emptying and combination of ruthenium with the contents of the gut. When rats are fasted overnight before the ruthenium is administered, absorption is increased threefold-and continues over a longer period. Nitrato derivatives of nitrosyl-ruthenium, in contrast to other compounds tested, react with the wall of the upper small intestine where up to 20% of an oral dose may be retained for several hours. Although the chemical state of ruthenium influences the degree of absorption, the subsequent distribution is not greatly affected. Approximately half of the absorbed ruthenium is excreted in the urine during the first 24 h. After one month, 5 to 20% of the absorbed fraction is retained with a long biological half-life. The ruthenium is distributed throughout the body with the concentrations in the various organs seldem differing by a factor of more than five, though the distribution within a single tissue is not necessarily uniform. The concentration in the kidney, which is the main route of excretion, is high. Consideration of the behaviour of ruthenium in blood serum helps to explain the processes involved in its distribution and retention. When ruthenium is mixed with serum in vitro some is firmly bound to the proteins and some remains free. Free ruthenium may be detected in the serum immediately after an intravenous injection or oral dose but it rapidly disappears. It seems probable that after ruthenium is absorbed in a freely diffusible form, some reacts with serum proteins and is initially confined to the vascular space, some is removed immediately by the kidneys and some diffuses rapidly into the extravascular space and tissues. The latter fraction may either react with the tissue and be retained or diffuse back into the blood and be excreted. After the first few days the ruthenium concentration in serum decreases at a rate which corresponds very closely to the rate of serum protein degradation. The retention of ruthenium in other tissues may also be governed by their catabolic rate. As ruthenium reacts with proteins to give stable complexes it is difficult to suggest any remedial treatment to decrease retention. The chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and TTHA do not influence the distribution or excretion of ruthenium administered intravenously to rats. (author) [French] Deux radioisotopes du ruthenium, ''1''0''3Ru (periode de 40 jours) et ''1''0''6Ru (periode de 1 an) sont produits en quantites relativement elevees a la suite de la fission nucleaire de {sup 235}U. On ne possede presque aucun renseignement sur le metabolisme du ruthenium chez l'homme et les considerations ci-dessous decoulent de recherches sur le rat et le lapin. La nature et l'importance des risques resultant du radioruthenium ne dependent pas seulement des conditions de la contamination, mais aussi de l'etat physique et chimique du ruthenium. ''1''0''6Ru administre par voie buccale sous torme de bioxyde sort du tractus gastro-intestinal en quantite negligeable s'il se presente sous la forme de particules incorporees a un excipient; mais lorsqu'on l'administre sous la forme colloidale et sans excipient, la fixation est la meme que celle qui succede a l'administration du chlorure (3 a 5%). Les derives nitres du ruthenium nitrose peuvent etre absorbes en plus grande quantite encore (en moyenne 13% chez le lapin). L'absorption chez le rat sans jeune prealable est terminee au bout de une heure (dose intragastrique). La brievete de cette absorption peut s'expliquer par le fait que l'estomac se vide assez rapidement et que le ruthenium se melange au contenu de l'intestin. Lorsqu'on fait jeuner le rat pendant la nuit qui precede l'administration de ruthenium, l'absorption est trois fois plus elevee et se prolonge sur une plus longue periode. Les derives nitres du ruthenium nitrose, contrairement aux autres composes ayant fait l'objet des experiences, reagissent sur la paroi du duodenum superieur, ou jusqu'a 20% d'une dose par voie buccale peuvent etre retenus pendant plusieurs heures. Bien que l'etat chimique du ruthenium influence le degre d'absorption, la distribution ulterieure n'est pas sensiblement affectee. Environ la moitie du ruthenium absorbe est excretee dans l'urine au cours des premieres 24 heures. Apres un mois, de 5 a 20% de la fraction absorbee sont encore retenus dans l'organisme, avec une longue periode d'activite biologique. Le ruthenium se repartit dans l'ensemble du corps avec des concentrations qui different rarement d'un facteur superieur a cinq d'un organe a un autre, mais la repartition dans un meme tissu n'est pas necessairement uniforme. La concentration dans le rein, qui constitue la principale voie d'excretion, est tres elevee. L'etude du comportement du ruthenium dans le serum sangiun permet d'expliquer les processus qui conditionnent sa repartition et sa retention. Si l'on melange in vitro du ruthenium et du serum, une partie du ruthenium devient etroitement liee aux proteines et une autre partie reste libre. Le ruthenium libre peut etre decele dans le serum immediatement apres une injection intraveineuse ou une administration par voie buccale, mais il disparait rapidement. Il est probable qu'apres l'absorption du ruthenium sous une forme librement diffusible, une partie reagit avec les proteines du serum et reste tout d'abord dans l'espace vasculaire, une partie est immediatement excretee par les reins et une partie se diffuse rapidement dans l'espace extra-vasculaire et les tissus. Cette derniere fraction peut, soit reagir avec les tissus et etre retenue par eux, soit retourner dans le sang et etre excretee. Apres quelques jours, la concentration de ruthenium dans le serum decroit a une vitesse voisine de la vitesse de degradation des proteines du serum. La retention du ruthenium dans les autres tissus peut egalement dependre de la vitesse de leur catabolisme. Comme le ruthenium reagit avec les proteines pour donner des complexes stables, il est difficile.de proposer un traitement qui permette de diminuer sa retention. Les agents de chelation EDTA, DTPA et TTHA n'ont aucun effet sur la distribution ou l'excretion du ruthenium administre a des rats par voie intraveineuse. (author) [Spanish] Los isotopos radiactivos del rutenio, ''1''0''3Ru(t1/2 = 40 d) y ''1''0''6Ru(t1/2 = 1 a) se forman con rendimiento relativamente elevado durante ia fision del {sup 235}U . Las consideraciones que siguen se basan en investigaciones realizadas con ratas y conejos, ya que se poseen escasos datos sobre el metabolismo del rutenio en el hombre. La fndole y ia gravedad de los peligros que ocasiona el radiorrutenio no solo dependen de las circuns- tancias en que se produzca la contaminacion, sino tambien de los estados fisico y quimico del rutenio. Cuando el {sup 106}Ru se administra oralmente en forma de dioxido, la absorcion en el tubo digestivo es despreciable, siempre que se trabaje en presencia de portador y con el dioxido en forma de particulas, mientras que si esta en estado coloidal y exento de portador, la absorcion es similar a la que se produce al administrar el cloruro (3 a 5%). Los nitratodenvactos del mtrosilrutenio se pueden absorber en mayor grado aun (los conejos absorben en promedio el 13%). Cuando las ratas no se encuentran en ayunas, la absorcion es total a la hora de administrar una dosis por via oral. Este periodo de absorcion tan corto se podria explicar por la velocidad de vaciado del estomago y la combinacion del rutenio con ciertas sustancias contenidas en el intestino. Si se mantienen las ratas en ayunas la noche antes de administrar el rutenio; el grado de absorcion se triplica y el proceso continua durante bastante tiempo. Contrariamente a otros compuestos ya ensayados los nitratoderivados del nitrosilrutenio reaccionan con las paredes de la parte superior del intestino delgado, que son capaces de retener durante varias horas hasta el 20% de una dosis orai. El estado quimico del rutenio ejerce influencia sobre el grado de absorcion, pero no afecta mayormente a la distribucion ulterior del elemento. Durante las primeras 24 horas se excreta por la orina aproximadamente la mitad del rutenio absorbido. Al cabo de un mes, quedan todavia retenidos, con un periodo biologico largo, del 5 al 20{sup o}/ode la fraccion absorbida. El rutenio se distribuye por todo el organismo y las concentraciones en los diversos organos rara vez difieren en un factor superior a cinco, aunque la distribucion en un solo tejido no sea necesariamente homogenea. La concentracion en los rinones, que constituyen la via principal de eliminacion, es elevada. El estudio del comportamiento del rutenio en el suero sanguineo ayuda a explicar los procesos que gobiernan su distribution y retencion. Cuando el rutenio se mezcla in vitro con ei suero una parte queda firmemente ligada a las proteinas en tanto que el resto permanece libre. El rutenio libre se puede detectar en el suero inmediatamente despues de una inyeccion endovenosa o una administracion por via oral, pero desaparece con rapidez. Es probable que una vez que el rutenio sea absorbido en una forma que difunde libremente, parte del mismo reaccione con las proteinas del suero y que en un primer momento permanezca confinado en el espacio vascular; una parte es eliminada sin demora por los rinones y otra se difunde rapidamente en el espacio extravascular y en los tejidos. Esta ultima fraccion puede, bien reaccionar con el tejido y quedar retenida o difundirse de nuevo a la sangre, bien ser excretada. Despues de los primeros dias, la concentracion de rutenio en el suero disminuye a una velocidad que guarda una relacion estrecha con la velocidad de degradacion de las seroproteinas. Es posible que la retencion del rutenio en otros tejidos se rija tambien por su velocidad catabolica. (author) [Russian] Dva radioaktivnykh izotopa ruteniya, rutenij-103 (T1/2 = 40 dnej) i rutenij-106 (T1/2 = 1 god) obrazuyutsya v otnositel'no bol'shom kolichestve v rezul'tate rasshchepleniya urana-235. Pochti ket informatsii otnositel'no metabolizma ruteniya v organizme cheloveka, i privodimye soobrazheniya osnovyvayutsya ka issledovaniyakh krys i krolikov. KHarakter i razmer opasnosti, vyzyvaemoj radioruteniem, zavisit ne tol'ko ot uslovij zarazheniya, no i ot fizicheskogo i khimicheskogo sostoyaniya ruteniya. Rutenij-106, prinyatyj vnutr' v vide dvuokisi, vsasyvaetsya iz zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta v neznachitel'noj stepeni, kogda on prisutstvuet v forme chastits s nositelem, no pri vvedenii v vide kolloida bez nositelya pogloshchenie ego pochti takoe zhe, kak posle vvedeniya khlorida (3 - 5%). Nitratoproizvodnye nitroehila ruteniya mogut vsasyvat'sya eshche v bol'shej stepeni (u krolikov v srednem vsasyvaetsya okolo 13%). Vsasyvanie u negolodavshikh krys zakanchivaetsya v techenie odnogo chasa i ogranicheno vnutrizheludochnoJ dozoj. Ogranichennyj period vsasyvaniya mozhet ob'yasnyatsya skorost'yu oporozhneniya zheludka i soedineniem' ruteniya s soderzhimym kishechnika. Vsasyvanie uvelichivaetsya v tri raza i prodolzhaetsya znachitel'no dol'she, esli rutenij vvoditsya krysam posle nochnogo golodaniya. Nitratoproizvodnye nitroehila ruteniya v protivopolozhnost' drugim issledovannym soedineniyam vstupayut v reaktsiyu so stenkoj verkhnego otdela tonkogo kishechnika, gde na neskol'ko chasov mozhet zaderzhivat'sya okolo 20% prinyatoj vnutr' dozy. Khotya stepen' vsasyvaniya zavisit ot khimicheskogo sostoyaniya ruteniya, ono ne vliyaet v zametnoj stepeni na posledukhiee raspredelenie ehlementa. Priblizitel'no polovina vsosavshegosya ruteniya vydelyaetsya s mochoj v techenie pervykh 24 chasov. Po istechenii mesyatsa zaderzhivaetsya ot 5 do 20% vsosav-shikhsya fraktsij s dlinnyj biologicheskim periodom poluraspada. Faktor raspredeleniya kontsentratsij ruteniya v razlichnykh organakh redko prevyshaet 5, khotya raspredelenie v odnoj i toj zhe tkani ne vsegda odinakovo. Naibolee vysoka kontsentratsiya v pochkakh, yavlyayuiikhsya glaznym putem vyvedeniya. Rassmotrenie povedeniya ruteniya v syvorotke krovi pomogaet ob{sup y}asnyat' protsessy ego raspredeleniya i zaderzhki. Esli smeshat' rutenij s syvorotkoj In vitro, to chast' ego prochno svyazyvaetsya s belkami; a chast' ostaetsya svobodnoj. Svobodnyj rutenij mozhet byt' obnaruzhen v syvorotke neposredstvenno posle vnutrivennogo vvedeniya ili prinyatiya vnutr', no bystro ischezaet. Vozmozhno, chto posle togo, kak rutenij vsasyvaetsya v svobodno diffundiruyushchej forme, chast' ego reagiruet s belkami syvorotki i pervonachal'no ostaetsya v sosudistom prostranstve, chast' nemedlenno vyvoditsya cherez pochki, a chast' bystro diffundiruet vo vnesosudietoe prostranstvo i tkani. Poslednyaya fraktsiya mozhet libo reagirovat' s tkan'yu i zaderzhivat'sya ili diffundirovat' obratno v krov' i vydelit'sya. CHerez neskol'ko dnej kontsentratsiya ruteniya v syvorotke snizhaetsya so skorost'yu, sootvetstvuyushchej skorosti degradatsii belkov syvorotki. Zaderzhka ruteniya v drugikh tkanyakh takzhe mozhet opredelyat'sya skorost'yu katabolizma belkov. Poskol'ku pri reaktsii ruteniya s belkami obrazuyutsya ustojchivye kompleksy, trudno najti kakoelibo aek and rgtgennoe lechenie dlya snizheniya zaderzhki. Kompleksoobrazukhntsie veshchestva EDTA, DTRA i TTJA ne vliyayut na raspredelenie ili vydelenie ruteniya, vvedennogo krysam vnutrivenno. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1963}
month = {Feb}
}