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Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos

Conference:

Abstract

The isotopic composition of plutonium to be used as fuel for fast reactors will depend on the source of plutonium. In principle three different sources are possible: (a) production reactors; (6) thermal power reactors (using natural uranium or enriched uranium as fuel); (c) fast reactor blankets. In general, source (a) and to some extent source (c) will provide relatively 'clean' plutonium, that is mostly Pu{sup 239}, while plutonium from source (6) will be 'dirty' plutonium, that is plutonium rich in Pu{sup 240}, Pu{sup 241}, and Pu{sup 242}. The degree of 'dirtiness' will depend on the kind of reactor, amount of burn-up and in general on the irradiation history of the fuel. The question then arises, can one use as fuel for fast reactors any kind of plutonium? To investigate the effect of different isotopic composition of the plutonium fuel, in the metallic, oxide and carbide form, on the performance of fast reactors, a limited series of spherical geometry 16-group diffusion theory calculations were performed, using the 16-group cross-section set developed recently by Yiftah, Okrent and Moldauer and taking three different kinds of plutonium, starting with pure Pu{sup 239} and increasing the amount of higher isotopes. For the systems studied-800, 1500  More>>
Authors:
Yiftah, S [1] 
  1. Israel Atomic Energy Commission (Israel)
Publication Date:
Mar 15, 1962
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Seminar on Physics of Fast and Intermediate Reactors, Vienna (Austria), 3-11 Aug 1961; Other Information: 10 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs; Related Information: In: Physics of Fast and Intermediate Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Seminar on the Physics of Fast and Intermediate Reactors. Vol. II| 418 p.
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; BREEDING BLANKETS; BREEDING RATIO; BURNUP; CARBIDES; CRITICAL MASS; CROSS SECTIONS; ENRICHED URANIUM; FBR TYPE REACTORS; ISOTOPE RATIO; LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTORS; MULTIGROUP THEORY; NATURAL URANIUM; NEUTRON DIFFUSION EQUATION; OXIDES; PLUTONIUM 239; PLUTONIUM 240; PLUTONIUM 241; PLUTONIUM 242; REACTIVITY; SODIUM; THERMAL REACTORS
OSTI ID:
22080517
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13S0016039341
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 257-270
Announcement Date:
Apr 04, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Yiftah, S. Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos. IAEA: N. p., 1962. Web.
Yiftah, S. Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos. IAEA.
Yiftah, S. 1962. "Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22080517,
title = {Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos}
author = {Yiftah, S}
abstractNote = {The isotopic composition of plutonium to be used as fuel for fast reactors will depend on the source of plutonium. In principle three different sources are possible: (a) production reactors; (6) thermal power reactors (using natural uranium or enriched uranium as fuel); (c) fast reactor blankets. In general, source (a) and to some extent source (c) will provide relatively 'clean' plutonium, that is mostly Pu{sup 239}, while plutonium from source (6) will be 'dirty' plutonium, that is plutonium rich in Pu{sup 240}, Pu{sup 241}, and Pu{sup 242}. The degree of 'dirtiness' will depend on the kind of reactor, amount of burn-up and in general on the irradiation history of the fuel. The question then arises, can one use as fuel for fast reactors any kind of plutonium? To investigate the effect of different isotopic composition of the plutonium fuel, in the metallic, oxide and carbide form, on the performance of fast reactors, a limited series of spherical geometry 16-group diffusion theory calculations were performed, using the 16-group cross-section set developed recently by Yiftah, Okrent and Moldauer and taking three different kinds of plutonium, starting with pure Pu{sup 239} and increasing the amount of higher isotopes. For the systems studied-800, 1500 and 2500-l core-volumes, which are typical for large fast power reactors-the result is, when one takes into account only the thermally fissionable isotopes Pu{sup 239} arid Pu{sup 241}, that the 'dirtier' the plutonium, the smaller the critical mass and the higher the breeding ratio. For the 1500-l reactor, taken as an example, it is further found that in the metallic, oxide and carbide plutonium fuels the reactivity change upon removal of 40% of the sodium initially present in the core is made more negative (or less positive) when the plutonium is richer in higher isotopes. (author) [French] La composition isotopique du plutonium qui doit etre utilise comme combustible dans des reacteurs a neutrons rapides depend de son origine. En principe, ce plutonium peut provenir de trois sources differentes; a) reacteurs plutonigenes; b) reacteurs de puissance a neutrons thermiques, utilisant l'uranium naturel ou l'uranium enrichi comme combustible; c) couches fertiles de reacteurs a neutrons rapides. En general, la source a) et, a un degre moindre, la source c) fourniront du plutonium relativement , c'est-a-dire compose en majeure partie de {sup 239}Pu, tandis que le plutonium provenant de la source b) sera un plutonium , c'est-a-dire un plutonium contenant une forte proportion de {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu et {sup 242}Pu. Ce plutonium sera plus ou moins suivant le type du reacteur, le taux de combustion et, de maniere generale, suivant l'irradiation subie par le combustible. La question qui se pose est alors la suivante: peut-on utiliser comme combustible, dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides, n'importe quelle sorte de plutonium? Pour etudier l'effet des differentes compositions isotopiques de plutonium utilise comme combustible sous forme de metal, d'oxyde ou de carbure, sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides, les auteurs ont procede a une serie de calculs dans une theorie de la diffusion a 16 groupes en geometrie spherique; ils ont utilise a cet effet l'ensemble de sections efficaces a 16 groupes, recemment mis au point par Yiftah, Okrent et Moldauer, et ont etudie trois types differents de plutonium en prenant d'abord le {sup 239}Pu a l'etat pur et en augmentant ensuite la quantite des isotopes superieurs. Pour les systemes etudies - coeurs d'un volume de 800, 500 et 2500 l, qui sont courants pour les grands reacteurs de puissance a neutrons rapides - on constate, en ne tenant compte que des isotopes {sup 239}Pu et {sup 241}Pu, fissiles sous l'action de neutrons thermiques, que plus le plutonium est , plus la masse critique est faible et plus le rapport de conversion est eleve. Dans le cas d'un reacteur dont le coeur a un volume de 1500 l, on constate egalement que dans le plutonium utilise comme combustible sous forme de metal, d'oxyde ou de carbure, les variations de la reactivite, apres enlevement de 40% du sodium initialement present dans le coeur, sont plus negatives (ou moins positives) si le plutonium a une plus forte teneur en isotopes superieurs. (author) [Spanish] La composicion isotopica del plutonio empleado como combustible en los reactores de neutrones rapidos depende de su procedencia. En principio, existen tres fuentes posibles, a saber: a) los reactores generadores de plutonio; b) los reactores de potencia termicos (alimentados con uranio natural o enriquecido); c) las envolturas fertiles de los reactores de neutrones rapidos. La fuente a), y hasta cierto punto la fuente c), proporcionan plutonio-239 relativamente puro, mientras que el plutonio de la fuente b) es rico en {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu y {sup 242}Pu. La cantidad de impurezas depende, del tipo de reactor empleado, del grado de combustion y, en general, de las condiciones de irradiacion del combustible. Cabe preguntarse, entonces, si es posible emplear cualquier clase de plutonio como combustible en los reactores de neutrones rapidos. Con el proposito de estudiar los efectos que ejerce sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores la composicion isotopica del combustible de plutonio, en forma de metal, oxido o carburo, se realizo una serie de calculos de geometria segun una teoria de difusion de 16 grupos, utilizando el conjunto de secciones eficaces de 16 grupos recientemente establecido por Yiftah, Okrent y Moldauer; esos calculos se aplicaron a plutonio de tres composiciones isotopicas diferentes, empezando por {sup 239}Pu puro y aumentando la concentracion de los isotopos de numero masico mas elevado. Se han estudiado sistemas con cuerpos de 800, 1500 y 2500 litros de volumen, que son los tipicos de los reactores generadores rapidos de grandes dimensiones. Se llega a la conclusion de que, si solo se tienen en cuenta los isotopos fisionables por neutrones termicos ({sup 239}Pu y {sup 241}Pu), cuanto mas impuro sea el plutonio, tanto menor sera la masa critica y mayor la razon de reproduccion. Tomando como ejemplo el reactor de 1500 l, se comprobo ademas que al eliminar un 40 por ciento del sodio inicialmente presente en el cuerpo, la variacion de reactividad tiende a ser negativa a medida que aumenta la proporcion de isotopos superiores contenidos en el combustible de plutonio (en forma de metal, oxido o carburo). (author) [Russian] Izotopnyj sostav plutoniya, kotoryj dolzhen ispol'zovat'sya v kachestve goryuchego dlya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh, budet zaviset' ot istochnika polucheniya plutoniya. V printsipe vozmozhny tri razlichnykh istochnika: a) proizvodyashchie reaktory; b) teplovye ehnergeticheskie reaktory (ispol'zuyushchie v kachestve topliva estestvennyj ili obogashchennyj uran); c) zony vosproizvodstv a reaktora na bystrykh nejtronakh. V osnovnom istochnik (a) i v nekotorom otnoshenii istochnik (s) budut davat' sravnitel'no 'chistyj' plutonij, t.e. glavnym obrazom plutonij-239, togda kak plutonij iz istochnika (b) budet 'gryaznym', t.e. plutoniem, bogatym izotopami plutoniya-240, plutoniya-241 i plutoniya-242. Stepen' 'zagryazneniya' budet zaviset' ot tipa reaktora, velichiny vygoraniya i voobshche ot istorii oblucheniya topliva. V takom sluchae voznikaet vopros, mozhno li ispol'zovat' v kachestve goryuchego dlya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh lyubye vidy plutoniya. Dlya izucheniya vliyaniya razlichnogo izotopnogo sostava plutonievogo topliva v metallicheskom, oksidnom i karbidnom vide na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh byli osushchestvleny ogranichennye serii podschetov po 16-gruppovoj diffuzionnoj teorii sfericheskoj geometrii s pomoshch'yu 16-gruppovogo komplekta poperechnykh sechenij, razrabotannogo nedavno Iftakhom, Okrentom i Mol'dauerom s ispol'zovaniem trekh razlichnykh vidov plutoniya, nachinaya s chistogo plutoniya-239 i povyshaya kolichestvo bolee vysokikh izotopov. Dlya izuchaemykh sistem (ob{sup e}m aktivnoj zony v 800, 1.500 i 2.500 litrov, kotorye yavlyayutsya tipichnymi dlya krupnykh ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh) rezul'tat svodilsya k tomu (esli uchest' lish' rasshcheplyayushchies ya ot teplovykh nejtronov izotopy plutoniya-239 i plutoniya-241), chto chem 'gryaznee' plutonij, tem men'she kriticheskaya massa i vyshe koehffitsient razmnozheniya. Dlya reaktora s ob{sup e}mom aktivnoj zony v 1.500 l, kotoryj byl vzyat v kachestve primera, bylo takzhe najdeno, chto v metallicheskom, oksidnom i karbidnom plutonievom toplive izmenenie reaktivnosti po udaleniyu 40% natriya, kotoryj pervonachal'no prisutstvuet v aktivnoj zone, nosit bolee otritsatel'nyj kharakter (ili menee polozhitel'nyj) , kogda plutonij bolee bogat vysokimi izotopami. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1962}
month = {Mar}
}