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Sediment Radiochronology Using Coastal {sup 210P}b: Model, Validation and Applications (Spanish Edition); Radiocronologia de Sedimentos Costeros Utilizando {sup 210}Pb: Modelos, Validacion y Aplicaciones

Abstract

The natural resources of the Caribbean Sea provide approximately 60% of gross domestic product generated in the Caribbean region. The region is a tourist destination through which circulate 50% of cruise passengers worldwide. While small islands abound, most of the towns and resorts are on or near the coast. A significant fraction of household waste is untreated and have been identified as a major source of coastal pollution. Additionally, oil refineries contribute approximately 70% of the biological oxygen demand and over 80% of total industrial discharges of oil and grease in the region, and thus represent the industrial source of pollution in the Wider Caribbean important. In Johannesburg 2002 a Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development was proposed and passed. Its aim is the comprehensive management of coastal marine ecosystems through the implementation of regional action plans. In 2005 the heads of state of the Association of Caribbean States signed the Declaration of Panama, which asserts that the Caribbean Sea is a common heritage of the region and decisions were made to support the resolution of the United Nations Organization to 'Promote integrated management of the Caribbean Sea Area in the Context of Sustainable Development'. These initiatives were aimed at the  More>>
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 2012
Product Type:
Book
Report Number:
STI/PUB-1538(S)
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS; CARIBBEAN SEA; FORECASTING; IAEA; LEAD 210; MEMBER STATES; POLLUTION; SEDIMENTS; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; UNITED NATIONS; WASTES; WATER RESOURCES
OSTI ID:
22030290
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Radiometrics Laboratory, Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (Monaco); United Nations Environment Program-Caribbean Regional Coordinating Unit (UNEP-CAR/RCU), Kingston (Jamaica)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
Spanish
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISBN 978-92-0-325210-2; TRN: XA12N2093118995
Availability:
Also available on-line: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/P1538_S_web.pdf; Enquiries should be addressed to IAEA, Marketing and Sales Unit, Publishing Section, E-mail: sales.publications@iaea.org; Web site: http://www.iaea.org/books
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
118 page(s)
Announcement Date:
Jan 29, 2013

Citation Formats

Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert, Diaz-Asencio, Misael, and Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina. Sediment Radiochronology Using Coastal {sup 210P}b: Model, Validation and Applications (Spanish Edition); Radiocronologia de Sedimentos Costeros Utilizando {sup 210}Pb: Modelos, Validacion y Aplicaciones. IAEA: N. p., 2012. Web.
Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert, Diaz-Asencio, Misael, & Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina. Sediment Radiochronology Using Coastal {sup 210P}b: Model, Validation and Applications (Spanish Edition); Radiocronologia de Sedimentos Costeros Utilizando {sup 210}Pb: Modelos, Validacion y Aplicaciones. IAEA.
Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert, Diaz-Asencio, Misael, and Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina. 2012. "Sediment Radiochronology Using Coastal {sup 210P}b: Model, Validation and Applications (Spanish Edition); Radiocronologia de Sedimentos Costeros Utilizando {sup 210}Pb: Modelos, Validacion y Aplicaciones." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22030290,
title = {Sediment Radiochronology Using Coastal {sup 210P}b: Model, Validation and Applications (Spanish Edition); Radiocronologia de Sedimentos Costeros Utilizando {sup 210}Pb: Modelos, Validacion y Aplicaciones}
author = {Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert, Diaz-Asencio, Misael, and Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina}
abstractNote = {The natural resources of the Caribbean Sea provide approximately 60% of gross domestic product generated in the Caribbean region. The region is a tourist destination through which circulate 50% of cruise passengers worldwide. While small islands abound, most of the towns and resorts are on or near the coast. A significant fraction of household waste is untreated and have been identified as a major source of coastal pollution. Additionally, oil refineries contribute approximately 70% of the biological oxygen demand and over 80% of total industrial discharges of oil and grease in the region, and thus represent the industrial source of pollution in the Wider Caribbean important. In Johannesburg 2002 a Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development was proposed and passed. Its aim is the comprehensive management of coastal marine ecosystems through the implementation of regional action plans. In 2005 the heads of state of the Association of Caribbean States signed the Declaration of Panama, which asserts that the Caribbean Sea is a common heritage of the region and decisions were made to support the resolution of the United Nations Organization to 'Promote integrated management of the Caribbean Sea Area in the Context of Sustainable Development'. These initiatives were aimed at the adoption of concrete actions in different areas of sustainable development such as biodiversity, water resources and vulnerability, with attention to social and economic aspects. In 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 'Towards sustainable development of the Caribbean Sea for present and future generations'. In 2007, the IAEA initiated a 4-year project on 'application of nuclear techniques in solving specific problems of integrated coastal zone management in the Caribbean', RLA/7/012. The aim of the project was to develop and enhance the capabilities to reduce human-caused degradation of coastal ecosystems of the Wider Caribbean region using nuclear techniques in support of integrated coastal zone. This project is aligned with the objectives of the IAEA in the environment, including 'facilitating the sustainable use of natural resources where isotopes can improve understanding of natural systems that allow, for example, prediction of future global trends from the past and overall assessment of resources'. The project involves Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, with the support of the Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT, Spain), the Institute Research for Development (IRD, France) and in collaboration with the Regional Coordinating Unit of the Caribbean of the United Nations Program for the Environment (UNEP-CAR/RCU). It is expected that the project results will improve the commitment of Member States and regional organizations in activities to protect the environment now and in the future. Through the regional laboratory training and a better understanding of coastal ecosystems from baseline studies and historical reconstruction of pollution levels, a strong network of laboratories with improved capabilities will be able to continue to contribute to the sustainable management of Caribbean Sea. Methodologies are being developed for monitoring and management. The results will be disseminated to the scientific community, policy makers and society, in addition to international organizations such as UNEP and the Association of Caribbean States. The objective of the results is to support integrated management of the coastal zone. One of the main methodologies of this project is the use of coastal sediments as records of environmental change, including pollution. Since most of the changes have occurred in the region during the twentieth century, the best chronology is provided by {sup 210}Pb, a natural radioactive element with a half-life of about 20 years, allowing sediments dating to about 100 years of seniority. Although there are many published papers on the use of this radionuclide as stopwatch sediment, IAEA welcomed the proposal made by the project partners that a consolidated text in Spanish would be very valuable to scientists and students from the region. For this purpose, the IAEA organized in March 2008 a meeting of experts at the Institute of Marine and Coastal Research (INVEMAR, Santa Marta, Colombia) and the end result of the meeting is this book about dating by {sup 210}Pb. The IAEA is grateful to the experts who participated in the workshop for their excellent work and commitment to the project. This publication was developed by IAEA experts to introduce Ibero-American scientists and Spanish-speaking students in the use of sediments as records of recent environmental changes. Whenever it has been possible emphasis was given on examples from Latin America. Since this book is not a comprehensive review, the reader is invited to consult a number of excellent publications in English. We hope this is an efficient way to disseminate the use of nuclear techniques for the study of the environment in the region and is in the near future translated and adapted to other languages. [Spanish] Los recursos naturales del mar Caribe proporcionan aproximadamente el 60% del Producto Interior Bruto generado en la region caribena. La region es un destino turistico a traves del que circulan un 50% de los pasajeros de cruceros de todo el mundo. Si bien abundan pequenas islas, la mayor parte de las ciudades y centros turisticos estan en o cerca de la costa. Una importante fraccion de los residuos domesticos sigue sin ser tratados y han sido identificados como una de las principales fuentes de contaminacion de las costas. Ademas, las refinerias de petroleo contribuyen con aproximadamente un 70% de la demanda biologica de oxigeno y mas del 80% de las descargas industriales totales de aceite y grasa en la region, por lo que representan la fuente industrial de contaminacion mas importante del Gran Caribe. En Johannesburgo 2002 se propuso y aprobo una Iniciativa Caribena para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Su objetivo es la gestion integral de ecosistemas marinos costeros a traves de la implementacion de planes de accion regionales. En 2005 los Jefes de Estado de la Asociacion de Estados del Caribe firmaron la Declaracion de Panama, la cual afirma que el Mar Caribe es un patrimonio comun de la region y se tomaron decisiones para apoyar la resolucion de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas para 'Promocionar una Gestion Integrada del Area del Mar del Caribe en el Contexto del Desarrollo Sostenible'. Estas iniciativas estaban dirigidas a la adopcion de acciones concretas en diferentes areas del desarrollo sostenible como la biodiversidad, recursos acuaticos y vulnerabilidad, prestando atencion a aspectos sociales y economicos. En 2006, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas adopto la resolucion 'Hacia el desarrollo sostenible del Mar Caribe para las generaciones presentes y futuras'. En el ano 2007, la OIEA inicio un proyecto de 4 anos sobre la 'Aplicacion de tecnicas nucleares en la solucion de problemas especificos del manejo integrado de las zonas costeras en el Caribe', RLA/7/012. El objetivo del proyecto era desarrollar y mejorar las capacidades para reducir la degradacion por causas humanas de los ecosistemas costeros de la region del Gran Caribe utilizando tecnicas nucleares, en apoyo de la gestion integrada de la zona costera. Este proyecto esta alineado con los objetivos del OIEA en medio ambiente, en particular 'facilitando el uso sostenible de los recursos naturales donde los isotopos pueden mejorar el conocimiento de sistemas naturales que permita, por ejemplo, la prediccion de tendencias futuras globales a partir del pasado y la evaluacion global de recursos'. En el proyecto participan Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Republica Dominicana y Venezuela, con el apoyo del Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT, Espana), el Instituto de Investigacion para el Desarrollo (IRD, Francia) y en colaboracion con la Unidad de Coordinacion Regional del Caribe del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA-CAR/RCU). Se espera que los resultados del proyecto mejoren el compromiso de los Estados Miembros y organizaciones regionales en actividades para la proteccion del ambiente ahora y en el futuro. A traves de la formacion en laboratorios regionales y el mejor conocimiento de los ecosistemas costeros a partir de estudios de base y de reconstruccion historica de los niveles de contaminacion, una fuerte red de laboratorios con mejores capacidades sera capaz de continuar contribuyendo a la gestion sostenible del mar Caribe. Se estan desarrollando metodologias para el monitoreo y la gestion. Los resultados seran diseminados a la comunidad cientifica, los tomadores de decisiones y la sociedad, ademas de organizaciones internacionales como UNEP y la Asociacion de Estados Caribenos. El objetivo de los resultados es apoyar la gestion integrada de la zona costera. Una de las metodologias principales de este proyecto es la utilizacion de sedimentos costeros como registros de cambios ambientales, incluyendo la contaminacion. Dado que la mayor parte de los cambios en la region han ocurrido durante el siglo XX, la mejor cronologia es la proporcionada por el {sup 210}Pb, un elemento radiactivo natural con un periodo de semidesintegracion de aproximadamente 20 anos, que permite fechar sedimentos de hasta unos 100 anos de antigueedad. Aunque hay muchos trabajos publicados sobre el uso de este radionuclido como cronometro de sedimentos, el OIEA valoro positivamente la propuesta hecha por las contrapartes del proyecto de que un texto de sintesis en espanol seria muy valioso para cientificos y estudiantes de la region. Con este objetivo, el OIEA organizo en Marzo de 2008 una reunion de expertos en el Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR, Santa Marta, Colombia) y el resultado final de la reunion es el presente libro sobre fechado mediante {sup 210}Pb. El OIEA esta muy agradecido a los expertos que participaron en el taller por su excelente trabajo y su compromiso con el proyecto. Esta publicacion del OIEA fue desarrollada por expertos ibero-americanos para introducir a los cientificos y estudiantes de lengua hispana en el uso de los sedimentos como registros de cambios ambientales recientes. Siempre que ha sido posible se ha dado enfasis a ejemplos procedentes de Iberoamerica. Dado que este libro no es una revision exhaustiva, el lector es invitado a consultar un conjunto de excelentes publicaciones en ingles. Esperamos que esta sea una forma eficiente para diseminar el uso de de tecnicas nucleares para el estudio del medio ambiente en la region y que sea en el futuro proximo traducido y adaptado a otras lenguas.}
place = {IAEA}
year = {2012}
month = {Jul}
}