You need JavaScript to view this

Radiation effects and radioprotectors

Abstract

Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of  More>>
Authors:
Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in; [1]  Bugalia, Saroj; [2]  Dakshene, Monika [3] 
  1. Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India)
  2. Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India)
  3. Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 2012
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: International conference on emerging frontiers and challenges in radiation biology, Bikaner (India), 24-25 Jan 2012; Related Information: In: Proceedings of the international conference on emerging frontiers and challenges in radiation biology: abstracts| by Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha (eds.) [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India)]; Saini, Vipin (ed.) [Dept. of Geography, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India)]; Arora, Anil (ed.) [Dept. of Botany, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India)]| 178 p.
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ALOE; DNA REPAIR; DRUGS; MAMMALS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION INJURIES; RADIOPROTECTIVE SUBSTANCES
OSTI ID:
22026997
Research Organizations:
Indian Society for Radiation Biology (India); Department of Zoology, Government Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Maharaja Ganga Singh University, Bikaner (India)
Country of Origin:
India
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: IN1202003115248
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 124
Announcement Date:
Jan 18, 2013

Citation Formats

Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in, Bugalia, Saroj, and Dakshene, Monika. Radiation effects and radioprotectors. India: N. p., 2012. Web.
Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in, Bugalia, Saroj, & Dakshene, Monika. Radiation effects and radioprotectors. India.
Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in, Bugalia, Saroj, and Dakshene, Monika. 2012. "Radiation effects and radioprotectors." India.
@misc{etde_22026997,
title = {Radiation effects and radioprotectors}
author = {Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in, Bugalia, Saroj, and Dakshene, Monika}
abstractNote = {Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio-protective compounds are highly toxic at their effective dose levels except MPG and hence attempts were made to find out a non-toxic agent which can minimize the harmful effects of radiations. Secondly, the uses of radio-protectors so far studied have been restricted by their availability and cost. Therefore, there is a need for compounds which are very effective in radio-protection and at the same time non-toxic, inexpensive and easily available. Various indigenous drugs of plant origin are being used in the Indian system of medicine for the treatment of ailments. The Aloe vera, Embijea officinalis, Ocimum snctum and Liv.52 etc. have been used effectively against radiation induced effects in the mammalian body. (author)}
place = {India}
year = {2012}
month = {Jul}
}