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Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales

Conference:

Abstract

Nuclear geophysics is applied to ore and coal deposits principally in the form of exploratory bore-hole logging. The following types of radioactive or nuclear logging (RL) are in wide industrial use at Soviet ore and coal deposits: density or gamma-gamma logging (GGL) with a Co{sup 60} source; selective gamma-gamma logging (SGGL) with a soft-radiation source of the Se{sup 75} type; neutron-neutron logging (NNL) and neutron-gamma logging with a Po-Be neutron source; activation (particularly continuous activation) logging with the same source; and photo-neutron logging with the gamma-emitter Sb{sup 124}. The chief purpose of RL at ore deposits is to distinguish ore bodies in the borehole section, thus reducing assaying intervals, and to furnish on the site an approximate estimate of the useful content. In coal deposits RL is used to determine the depth of the occurrence and the thickness and structure of the coal seams. The GGL and SGGL methods are based on recording the scattered gamma-radiation emitted by the source. Where the source emits sufficiently hard radiation and the sensitivity of the detector is low, the intensity of the scattered radiation is governed only by the density of the rock strata and the distance between source and detector. This applies  More>>
Publication Date:
Jan 15, 1962
Product Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference on the Use of Radioisotopes in the Physical Sciences and Industry, Copenhagen (Denmark), 6-17 Sep 1960; Other Information: 7 figs; Related Information: In: Radioisotopes in the Physical Sciences and Industry. Proceedings of the Conference on the Use of Radioisotopes in the Physical Sciences and Industry. V. 1| 556 p.
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; ANTIMONY 124; BERYLLIUM; BOREHOLES; BORON; COAL SEAMS; COBALT 60; COPPER; GAMMA RADIATION; GAMMA-GAMMA LOGGING; GEOPHYSICS; MANGANESE; NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS; NEUTRON SOURCES; NEUTRON-GAMMA LOGGING; NEUTRON-NEUTRON LOGGING; PHOTONEUTRONS; SELENIUM 75; SIDERITE; THERMAL NEUTRONS; TUNGSTEN
OSTI ID:
22025618
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
Russian
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA12N1597112911
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 101-116
Announcement Date:
Jan 16, 2013

Conference:

Citation Formats

Bulashevich, Yu P, Voskobojnikov, G M, and Muzyukin, L V. Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales. IAEA: N. p., 1962. Web.
Bulashevich, Yu P, Voskobojnikov, G M, & Muzyukin, L V. Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales. IAEA.
Bulashevich, Yu P, Voskobojnikov, G M, and Muzyukin, L V. 1962. "Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22025618,
title = {Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales}
author = {Bulashevich, Yu P, Voskobojnikov, G M, and Muzyukin, L V}
abstractNote = {Nuclear geophysics is applied to ore and coal deposits principally in the form of exploratory bore-hole logging. The following types of radioactive or nuclear logging (RL) are in wide industrial use at Soviet ore and coal deposits: density or gamma-gamma logging (GGL) with a Co{sup 60} source; selective gamma-gamma logging (SGGL) with a soft-radiation source of the Se{sup 75} type; neutron-neutron logging (NNL) and neutron-gamma logging with a Po-Be neutron source; activation (particularly continuous activation) logging with the same source; and photo-neutron logging with the gamma-emitter Sb{sup 124}. The chief purpose of RL at ore deposits is to distinguish ore bodies in the borehole section, thus reducing assaying intervals, and to furnish on the site an approximate estimate of the useful content. In coal deposits RL is used to determine the depth of the occurrence and the thickness and structure of the coal seams. The GGL and SGGL methods are based on recording the scattered gamma-radiation emitted by the source. Where the source emits sufficiently hard radiation and the sensitivity of the detector is low, the intensity of the scattered radiation is governed only by the density of the rock strata and the distance between source and detector. This applies to GGL, with which coal seams are distinguished by the maximum scattered-radiation levels. The essential feature of SGGL is the recording of the soft portion of the scattered-radiation spectrum, the intensity of which falls off steeply with an increase in the average atomic number of the elements in the medium. Its sensitivity is of the order of 0.01%, and it can be used successfully to distinguish ore bodies containing heavy elements (lead, tungsten, mercury etc.), and also at iron ore (siderite) deposits. The exceptionally large thermal neutron capture cross-section of boron enables boron ore bodies in the bore-hole section to be distinguished by the NGL and NNL methods. Interference by water can be eliminated by inverse probes. These neutron methods, and similarly neutron-activation logging, have also been applied at deposits of copper, manganese, aluminium and various other ores. Continuous-activation logging is appropriate where the occurring radioisotope has a suitable half-life. It is then possible to determine the optimum logging conditions (rate, length of probe, etc.) theoretically. Neutron recording during photo-neutron logging makes it possible to distinguish ore bodies containing beryllium, and to estimate the beryllium content from 0.001% upwards. Experience is confirming the effectiveness and economic expediency of nuclear geophysical methods in prospecting for ore and coal deposits. (author) [French] Les methodes de geophysique nucleaire s'emploient surtout pour l'exploration des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux par radiosondage. Dans le cas des gisements de charbon et d'autres mineraux de l'Union sovietique, les types suivants de prospection par sondage radioactif ou nucleaire (SR) trouvent une large application pratique : determination de la densite ou sondage gamma-gamma (S.G.G.) avec le {sup 60}cO comme source de rayonnements, sondage gamma-gamma selectif (S.G.G.S.) avec une source de rayonnements mous du type {sup 75}Se, sondage neutronsneutrons (S.N.N.) et sondage gamma-neutrons (S.G.N.) avec une source de neutrons Po-Be, sondage par activation - surtout par activation continue - avec emploi de la meme source, et sondage photo-neutronique avec l'emetteur gamma {sup 124}Sb. L'objet essentiel du S.R., dans les gisements de minerais, est de reconnaitre les differentes couches de minerais que l'on rencontre dans le trou de sonde, ce qui reduit le temps d'analyse, ainsi que d'evaluer approximativement, sur place, la teneur en elements utiles. Dans les gisements de charbon, le S.R. permet de determiner la profondeur, l'importance et la structure des veines. Les methodes dites S.G.G. et S.G.G.S. sont fondees sur l'enregistrement du rayonnement gamma diffuse provenant de la source. Lorsque le rayonnement emanant de la source est suffisamment dur et le detecteur peu sensible, l'intensite du rayonnement diffuse depend uniquement de la densite des strates et de la distance entre la source et le detecteur. C'est le cas pour le S.G.G., ou les veines de charbon sont delimitees d'apres les valeurs maxima du rayonnement diffuse. Le S.G.G.S. consiste surtout a enregistrer la partie molle du spectre des rayonnements diffuses, dont l'intensite tombe brusquement avec l'augmentation du nombre atomique moyen des elements du milieu etudie. Cette methode, dont la sensibilite est de l'ordre de 0,01 %, permet de determiner l'existence de minerais qui renferment des elements lourds (plomb, tungstene, mercure, etc), et l'on peut l'utiliser aussi pour les gisements de minerais de fer (siderite). Le bore ayant une section efficace de capture des neutrons thermiques exceptionnellement grande, on peut determiner dans le trou de sonde la presence de zones boriferes par les methodes du S.G.N. et du S.N.N. L'interference de l'eau peut etre eliminee par des sondages inverses. Ces methodes neutroniques, de meme que le sondage par activation neutronique, ont ainsi trouve une application dans les gisements de cuivre, de maganese, d'aluminium et de certains autres minerais. La methode du sondage par activation continue est utilisable lorsque la periode du radioisotope forme s'y prete. On peut alors determiner en theorie les conditions optima du sondage (taux d'activation, duree du sondage, etc.). L'enregistrement neutronique effectue lors du sondage photo-neutronique permet de determiner les zones riches en beryllium et d'evaluer la teneur en beryllium a partir de 0,001%. L'experience confirme l'efficacite technique et economique des methodes de geophysique nucleaire pour la prospection des gisements de charbon et d'autres mineraux. (author) [Spanish] La exploracion de perfiles por sondeo constituye la principal aplicacion de la geofisica nuclear en los yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales. Los siguientes tipos de exploracion radiactiva, o nuclear (E.R.), encuentran una vasta aplicacion industrial en las minas de la Union Sovietica : exploracion de densidades, o gamma-gamma (E.G.G.), con una fuente de {sup 60}Co ; exploracion gamma-gamma selectiva (E.G.G.S.) con una fuente de radiaciones blandas que emplea {sup 75}Se; exploracion neutron-neutron (E.N.N.) y exploracion gamma-neutron con una fuente neutronica de Po-Be; exploracion por activacion (sobre todo por activacion continua) empleando la misma fuente, y exploracion foton-neutron con el emisor gamma {sup 124}Sb. El empleo de la E R en los yacimientos de mineral tiene por principal objeto detectar criaderos en masa en la zona de sondeo, con lo que se consigue reducir los intervalos entre los analisis, asi como valorar aproximadamente los elementos utiles que contiene el sector. La E.R. permite determinar la presencia, el espesor y la estructura de los filones en los yacimientos de carbon. Los metodos denominados E.G.G. y E.G.G.S. consisten en registrar las radiaciones gamma dispersas. Cuando la fuente emite radiaciones de dureza suficiente y el detector es poco sensible, la intensidad de las radiaciones dispersas depende solamente de la densidad de los estratos rocosos y de la distancia entre la fuente y el detector. Este es el caso de la E.G.G., en la que se localizan las capas de carbon por las intensidades maximas de las radiaciones dispersas. La caracteristica fundamental de la E.G.G.S. es que registra la zona blanda del espectro de las radiaciones dispersas, cuya intensidad se debilita bruscamente al aumentar el numero atomico medio de los elementos presentes en la region explorada. La sensibilidad de este metodo es del orden del 0,01 por ciento y permite localizar con nitidez los criaderos en masa que contienen elementos pesados (plomo, wolframio, mercurio, etc.), asi como aycimientos de mineral de hierro (siderita). La elevada seccion eficaz de captura de neutrones termicos del boro hace posible determinar estratos boriferos en la zona del sondeo empleando los metodos E.G.N. y E.N.N. La influencia del agua se elimina mediante sondeos inversos. Este metodo, asi como otros sistemas de exploracion por activacion neutronica, han sido aplicados tambien en diversos yacimientos de cobre, manganeso, aluminio y otros minerales. La exploracion por activacion continua esta indicada cuando el periodo de semi [Russian] Na rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh metody yadernoj geofiziki primenyayutsya glavnym obrazom pri karotazhe razvedochnykh skvazhin. Na rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh Sovetskogo Soyuza nakhodyat shirokoe proizvodstvennoe primenenie sleduyushchie vidy radioaktivnogo ili yadernogo karotazha (RK): plotnostnoj ili gamma-gamma karotazh (GGK) s istochnikom izlucheniya Co{sup 60}, selektivnyj gamma-gamma karotazh (SGGK) s istochnikom myagkogo izlucheniya tipa S75, nejtron-nejtronnyj karotazh (NNK) i nejtronnyj gamma karotazh s Ro-Ve istochnikom nejtronov, akti- vatsionnyj, v chastnosti nepreryvnyj, karotazh s tem zhe istochnikom, a takzhe foto-nej- tronnyj karotazh s gamma-izluchatelem Sb{sup 124}. Osnovnaya zadacha RK na rudnykh mestorozhdeniyakh - vydelenie rudnykh zon v razreze skvazhin, chto sokrashchaet intervaly oprobovaniya, i orientirovochnaya otsenka soderzhaniya poleznogo komponenta in situ. Na ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh RK reshaet zadachu opredeleniya glubiny zaleganiya, moshchnosti i stroeniya ugol'nykh plastov. ' Metody GGK i SGGK osnovany na registratsii rasseyannogo gamma-izlucheniya istochnika. Pri dostatochnoj zhestkosti izlucheniya istochnika i slaboj chuvstvitel'nosti indikatora intensivnost' rasseyannogo izlucheniya zavisit tol'ko ot plotnosti porody i rasstoyaniya mezhdu istochnikom i indikatorom. EHto sluchaj GGK, kotorym ugol'nye plasty vydelyayutsya po maksimumam rasseyannogo izlucheniya. V SGGK sushchestvenna registratsiya myagkoj chasti spektra rasseyannogo izlucheniya, intensivnost' kotoroj rezko oslablyaetsya s uvelicheniem srednego atomnogo nomera ehlementov sredy. EHtim metodom uspeshno vydelyayutsya rudnye zony s tyazhelymi ehlementami (svinets, vol'fram, rtut' i dr.). CHuvstvitel'nost' metoda poryadka 0,01 % SGGK uspeshno primenyaetsya na zhelezorudnykh (sideritovykh) mestorozhde- niyakh. Anomal'no bol'shoe sechenie zakhvata teplovykh nejtronov borom pozvolyaet vydelyat' v razreze skvazhin boronosnye zony metodami NGK i NNK. Meshayushchee vliyanie vody isklyuchaetsya inversionnymi zondami. EHti nejtronnye metody, a takzhe nejtronno-aktivatsionnyj karotazh nashli primenenie takzhe na mestorozhdeniyakh medi, margantsa, alyuminiya i nekotorykh drugikh. Nepreryvnyj aktivatsionnyj karotazh tselesoobrazen pri podkhodyashchem periode poluraspada voznikayushchego radioaktivnogo izotopa. Pri ehtom teoriya pozvolyaet ustanovit' optimal'nye usloviya karotazha (skorost', dlina zonda i t.d.). Registratsiya nejtronov pri foto-nejtronnom karotazhe pozvolyaet vydelyat' zony, obogashchennye berilliem, i otsenivat' soderzhaniya ehtogo ehlementa, nachinaya s 0,001%. Opyt podtverzhdaet ehffektivnost' i ehkonomicheskuyu tselesoobraznost' primeneniya metodov yadernoj geofiziki pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1962}
month = {Jan}
}