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Safeguards for the atom

Journal Article:

Abstract

Concern over the destructive potentialities of nuclear energy has grown all over the world. In fact, it was this concern, coupled with an awareness of the equally great potentialities for peaceful prosperity, that led to the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency. That nuclear energy should be used solely for peaceful purposes is an ideal to which all people would subscribe. Realization of this ideal, however, is dependent on many complex factors which are outside the scope of the Agency. In its own limited sphere, however, the Agency has the responsibility to ensure that in its efforts to promote the peaceful uses it does not in any way increase the potentiality of military use. The possibility of military application is not the only danger that the Agency must guard against, it has a further function arising from the nature of the materials needed in atomic energy work. Since the basic materials are radioactive and since all ionizing radiation is potentially dangerous, the Agency must ensure that in helping its Member States to develop the peaceful uses of atomic energy it does not increase the hazards of nuclear radiation or radioactive contamination. It must establish standards of safe practice for  More>>
Publication Date:
Oct 15, 1959
Product Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IAEA Bulletin; Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 3
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; BILATERAL AGREEMENTS; DOMESTIC SAFEGUARDS; ENRICHED URANIUM; FISSILE MATERIALS; FRANCE; IAEA; IAEA SAFEGUARDS; MANUALS; NATURAL URANIUM; NONDESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS; NUCLEAR ENERGY; OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY; PLUTONIUM; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; RESEARCH REACTORS; SPENT FUEL ELEMENTS; STANDARDS; THORIUM; URANIUM 233; URANIUM 235; ACTINIDE NUCLEI; ACTINIDES; AGREEMENTS; ALPHA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; DOCUMENT TYPES; ELEMENTS; ENERGY; EUROPE; EVEN-ODD NUCLEI; FISSIONABLE MATERIALS; FUEL ELEMENTS; HEAVY ION DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; HEAVY NUCLEI; INTERNAL CONVERSION RADIOISOTOPES; INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS; INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; ISOMERIC TRANSITION ISOTOPES; ISOTOPE ENRICHED MATERIALS; ISOTOPES; MANAGEMENT; MATERIALS; METALS; MINUTES LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; NEON 24 DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; NUCLEI; RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTOR COMPONENTS; REACTORS; RESEARCH AND TEST REACTORS; SAFEGUARDS; SAFETY; SPONTANEOUS FISSION RADIOISOTOPES; TRANSURANIUM ELEMENTS; URANIUM; URANIUM ISOTOPES; WASTE DISPOSAL; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WESTERN EUROPE; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES
OSTI ID:
21511943
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: ISSN 0020-6067; IAEBAB; TRN: XA10K0542130722
Availability:
Available on-line: http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull013/01303401718.pdf
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 17-18
Announcement Date:
Dec 12, 2011

Journal Article:

Citation Formats

None. Safeguards for the atom. IAEA: N. p., 1959. Web.
None. Safeguards for the atom. IAEA.
None. 1959. "Safeguards for the atom." IAEA.
@misc{etde_21511943,
title = {Safeguards for the atom}
author = {None}
abstractNote = {Concern over the destructive potentialities of nuclear energy has grown all over the world. In fact, it was this concern, coupled with an awareness of the equally great potentialities for peaceful prosperity, that led to the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency. That nuclear energy should be used solely for peaceful purposes is an ideal to which all people would subscribe. Realization of this ideal, however, is dependent on many complex factors which are outside the scope of the Agency. In its own limited sphere, however, the Agency has the responsibility to ensure that in its efforts to promote the peaceful uses it does not in any way increase the potentiality of military use. The possibility of military application is not the only danger that the Agency must guard against, it has a further function arising from the nature of the materials needed in atomic energy work. Since the basic materials are radioactive and since all ionizing radiation is potentially dangerous, the Agency must ensure that in helping its Member States to develop the peaceful uses of atomic energy it does not increase the hazards of nuclear radiation or radioactive contamination. It must establish standards of safe practice for activities carried out under its auspices or with its assistance. Since the safeguards will have two distinct objectives, a distinction can be made between those which will be designed to prevent the diversion of Agency assistance to military use and those against health and safety hazards. So far as the health and safety measures are concerned, a good deal of work has already been done in determining the standards of safe practice which will be the basis for the relevant rules. The Agency has published the first in its series of safety manuals, 'Safe Handling of Radioisotopes', which deals with such standards. Safeguards against the diversion or loss of nuclear materials and facilities are more difficult to devise. It is not considered feasible for the Agency to set up a system of safeguards that would guarantee that no nuclear material at all could be diverted to unauthorized use. What the Agency intends is to apply its safeguards in such a manner as to achieve a high probability of detecting the diversion of even small quantities of materials, and when larger quantities are involved, to make detection almost certain. The need for safeguards would obviously arise in the case of fissile materials, because of their possible use in the production of weapons. The Agency safeguards may, therefore, be applied - depending on the quantity and other factors involved - to all types of these materials, namely natural uranium, thorium, enriched uranium, uranium 235, uranium 233 and plutonium. The greater the quantity of the actual fissile substances involved and the greater the possibility of diversion, the greater will be the need for safeguards. Details of the safeguards procedures are yet to be finally approved. Broadly speaking, they are expected to provide, inter alia, for the approval by the Agency of designs of facilities or installations in which materials subject to Agency safeguards are to be used, processed, recovered, produced or stored; the maintenance by the State concerned of records concerning accountability, inventory, operation and waste disposal; submission of periodic reports to the Agency; the deposit of excess fissile materials with the Agency; and visits by Agency representatives to the locations where the materials or facilities provided by the Agency are in use. Procedures for the application of health and safety measures will be set out in similar detail. The Agency has already provided for the application of Agency safeguards to the project under which Japan has bought from it three tons of natural uranium for use in a research reactor. A number of bilateral agreements also contain clauses referring to the possible application of Agency safeguards to projects to be carried out under the agreements. Agency is currently preparing a manual which will describe the methods of accounting , stock-taking, storehousing and measuring nuclear material that may be in various plants under Agency direction. The general principles for control of the hazards to health and safety at the plants due to radiation, radioactive contamination, criticality, or fire, will also be discussed. This manual is expected to become a valuable source book on internal safeguards procedures for all countries embarking on atomic energy programmes. France and the United States for the development of techniques for the non-destructive analysis of irradiated fuel elements}
journal = {IAEA Bulletin}
issue = {3}
volume = {1}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1959}
month = {Oct}
}