You need JavaScript to view this

Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

Abstract

Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order  More>>
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 2010
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
ETDE-DE-2581
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Diss. (Dr.-Ing.); Related Information: Hamburger Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft v. 75
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; EFFICIENCY; ETHIOPIA; FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY; RESOURCE ASSESSMENT; SANITARY LANDFILLS; URBAN AREAS; WASTE WATER
OSTI ID:
21497521
Research Organizations:
Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Forschung und Entwicklung der Umwelttechnologien an der Technischen Univ. Hamburg-Harburg e.V., Hamburg (Germany)
Country of Origin:
Germany
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISBN 978-3-942768-00-9; ISSN 0724-0783; TRN: DE11GD547
Availability:
Commercial reproduction prohibited; OSTI as DE21497521
Submitting Site:
DE
Size:
317 pages
Announcement Date:
Nov 11, 2011

Citation Formats

Meinzinger, Franziska. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis. Germany: N. p., 2010. Web.
Meinzinger, Franziska. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis. Germany.
Meinzinger, Franziska. 2010. "Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis." Germany.
@misc{etde_21497521,
title = {Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis}
author = {Meinzinger, Franziska}
abstractNote = {Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)}
place = {Germany}
year = {2010}
month = {Jul}
}