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Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

Abstract

This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film  More>>
Publication Date:
Nov 15, 2009
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
ETDE-DE-2427
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Diss. (Dr.rer.nat.)
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; AGGLOMERATION; EFFICIENCY; EXCITONS; FILMS; LAYERS; LIGHT EMITTING DIODES; MIXTURES; ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS; PHOSPHORESCENCE; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; TIME DEPENDENCE; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
OSTI ID:
21423579
Research Organizations:
Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften
Country of Origin:
Germany
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: DE11G5215
Availability:
Commercial reproduction prohibited; OSTI as DE21423579
Submitting Site:
DE
Size:
212 pages
Announcement Date:
May 14, 2011

Citation Formats

Reineke, Sebastian. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness. Germany: N. p., 2009. Web.
Reineke, Sebastian. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness. Germany.
Reineke, Sebastian. 2009. "Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness." Germany.
@misc{etde_21423579,
title = {Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness}
author = {Reineke, Sebastian}
abstractNote = {This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2}(acac). Compared to Ir(ppy){sub 3}, this emitter has a much smaller ground state dipole moment, suggesting that the improved performance is a result of weaker aggregation in the mixed film. The knowledge gained in the investigation of triplet-triplet annihilation is further used to develop a novel emission layer design for white organic LEDs. It comprises three phosphorescent emitters for blue, green, and red emission embedded in a multilayer architecture. The key feature of this concept is the matrix material used for the blue emitter FIrpic: Its triplet energy is in resonance with the FIrpic excited state energy which enables low operating voltages and high power efficiencies by reducing thermal relaxation. In order to further increase the device efficiency, the OLED architecture is optically optimized using high refractive index substrates and thick electron transport layers. These devices reach efficiencies which are on par with fluorescent tubes - the current efficiency benchmark for light sources. (orig.)}
place = {Germany}
year = {2009}
month = {Nov}
}