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Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3

Technical Report:

Abstract

The African Energy Programme (AEP) was established by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) to strengthen Africa's scientific and technical capabilities to develop and utilise the continent's enormous renewable energy resources to assist its socio-economic development. The AEP was conceived at a regional workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania in 1979, at which African researchers met to share their experiences of and explored the feasibility of establishing a collaborative regional R and D programme to develop and adapt technologies appropriate to the specific needs of the participating countries. The AEP researchers accorded the highest priority to seeking solutions to the energy problems of Africa's predominantly rural populations and identified eight project areas as the nodes for regional collaborative research and development: 1. Biogas for rural development; 2. Wood/Charcoal production and utilisation; 3. Solar crop drying; 4. Solar thermal heating and cooling; 5. Wind electricity generation; 6. Wind water pumping; 7. Resources Assessments; 8. Energy policy and planning. The primary goal of the AEP activities were to develop indigenous national capabilities to enable the examination and application of technological solutions appropriate to the unique problems and socio-cultural environments of each country. However, the severe limitations on expertise and the broad similarity of many  More>>
Authors:
Othieno, H [1] 
  1. Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 1987
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
CSC(87)ENP-20
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); 54 refs,4 figs, 5 tabs; Related Information: CSC technical publication series no. 241
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; AGRICULTURE; CROPS; KENYA; NATURAL CONVECTION; SOLAR DRYERS
OSTI ID:
21055492
Research Organizations:
Commonwealth Science Council, Commonwealth Secretariat, Marlborough House, London (United Kingdom)
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: GB08H0025072492
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
GBN
Size:
117 pages
Announcement Date:
Aug 06, 2008

Technical Report:

Citation Formats

Othieno, H. Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3. United Kingdom: N. p., 1987. Web.
Othieno, H. Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3. United Kingdom.
Othieno, H. 1987. "Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3." United Kingdom.
@misc{etde_21055492,
title = {Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3}
author = {Othieno, H}
abstractNote = {The African Energy Programme (AEP) was established by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) to strengthen Africa's scientific and technical capabilities to develop and utilise the continent's enormous renewable energy resources to assist its socio-economic development. The AEP was conceived at a regional workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania in 1979, at which African researchers met to share their experiences of and explored the feasibility of establishing a collaborative regional R and D programme to develop and adapt technologies appropriate to the specific needs of the participating countries. The AEP researchers accorded the highest priority to seeking solutions to the energy problems of Africa's predominantly rural populations and identified eight project areas as the nodes for regional collaborative research and development: 1. Biogas for rural development; 2. Wood/Charcoal production and utilisation; 3. Solar crop drying; 4. Solar thermal heating and cooling; 5. Wind electricity generation; 6. Wind water pumping; 7. Resources Assessments; 8. Energy policy and planning. The primary goal of the AEP activities were to develop indigenous national capabilities to enable the examination and application of technological solutions appropriate to the unique problems and socio-cultural environments of each country. However, the severe limitations on expertise and the broad similarity of many of the critical problems favoured regional R and D cooperation around common techniques and methodologies in each project area. This work has made a significant contribution to Science and Technology. Prior to this work there was no detailed information in natural convection solar dryers. This work has exposed a number of critical design factors which must be considered in order to design an efficient dryer. Buoyancy-induced pressure inside the dryer, problems of multiple radiative heat exchange in the heater and cooling effects of wind have been studied in detail. The final dryer design also has succeeded in solving the identified problems associated with the tradition sun drying techniques. One would therefore expect the demand for these dryers to be high. The actual situation is different. Farmers are not willing to spend money to acquire the dryers. Perhaps this is attributed to the fact that there is still high level of underemployment (or unemployment) of rural population and the fact that traditional drying method does not cost anything. Moreover the land area required for spreading the crops is still abundant in the rural areas. The farmers therefore appear not to appreciate the advantages of the solar dryer. Due to seasonal maize shortages which occasionally occur in Kenya, the government is now emphasizing the need to preserve cereal grains through proper drying and storage facilities. Expensive large oil-fired dryers have been imported and the government, through National Cereals and Produce Board, spends a lot of money to run these dryers. If small scale solar crop dryers were used at the farm level so that all cereal grains reaching the National Cereals and Produce Board were dry to the required moisture content for- long term storage, the government would save on the imported oil needed to operate the large industrial dryers. The individual farmer does not realize this and it is high time the government adopted a firm policy on the promotion of renewable energy devices. The policy should aim at assisting not only in educating the farmers but also in supporting researchers to disseminate knowledge about these devices. Relevant government ministries e.g. Ministry of Energy and Regional Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources should actively be involved in the dissemination process through Newspapers, Radio and T.V. Perhaps the Kenya National Council for Science and Technology should play a coordinating role.}
place = {United Kingdom}
year = {1987}
month = {Jul}
}