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Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

Abstract

The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS)  More>>
Authors:
Bitterlin, Ian F [1] 
  1. Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Nov 22, 2006
Product Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 162; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; HYDROGEN STORAGE; WIND TURBINES; POWER SYSTEMS; WIND; FREE ENERGY; GRIDS; WIND POWER; RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY; SUN; POWER GENERATION; JOINTS; SIMULATION; TOPOLOGY; USA; INTEREST GROUPS; ACCIDENTS; CONVERSION; COST; EFFICIENCY; EUROPE; MANUFACTURING; POPULATIONS; PRESSES; TELEPHONES
OSTI ID:
20985035
Country of Origin:
Netherlands
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753; JPSODZ; TRN: NL06V5008
Availability:
Available from doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.07.011
Submitting Site:
ECN
Size:
page(s) 906-912
Announcement Date:
Mar 07, 2008

Citation Formats

Bitterlin, Ian F. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power. Netherlands: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2005.07.011.
Bitterlin, Ian F. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2005.07.011.
Bitterlin, Ian F. 2006. "Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power." Netherlands. doi:10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2005.07.011. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2005.07.011.
@misc{etde_20985035,
title = {Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power}
author = {Bitterlin, Ian F}
abstractNote = {The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an interesting solution for the more rural and remote applications - particularly those where an electrical supply is not available or practical - and this paper attempts to explore the current practicalities of such a power generation solution for those cellular phone base stations. (author)}
doi = {10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2005.07.011}
journal = {Journal of Power Sources}
issue = {2}
volume = {162}
place = {Netherlands}
year = {2006}
month = {Nov}
}