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Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon

Abstract

The DDT, a term used to refer to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an organochlorine pesticide first synthesized in 1874, but its properties as insecticide were discovered only in the late 1930's by the chemist Paul Muller, who won the Nobel Prize in 1948. Since its discovery, DDT use revolutionized the control concepts against malaria and other tropical insect-borne diseases. A large-scale industrial production started in 1943 and it was used in great quantities mainly for the agricultural and forest pest control. A smaller quantity of the world production (20-30%) was used in tropical disease control. In 1946 it was established a regular system of DDT applications in Amazon houses. Its use became common in malaria vector control and other tropical diseases, like leishmaniasis. DDT began to be restricted after the discovery of its toxicity against wild animals, especially top predators and due to potential toxic effects against humans. The DDT restrictive measures in Brazil started in 19714. In 1985 DDT was prohibited for agricultural purposes, but continued to be use for Public Health Campaigns, under the responsibility of FUNASA, the Brazilian National Health Foundation. An investigation conducted by Vieira et al. detected {sigma}ODDT in soil, sediments and chicken eggs from an area  More>>
Authors:
Torres, J P.M.; Meire, R; Azeredo, A; Malm, O; [1]  D'Amato, C; [2]  Saldanha, G; Bastos, W; [3]  Claudio, L; [4]  Markowitz, S [5] 
  1. Lab. de Radiosotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)
  2. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias dos Alimentos, IQ-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)
  3. Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil)
  4. International Training Environmental Medicine, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Community and Preventive Medicine Dept., NY (United States)
  5. Center for Biology of the Natural Systems, Queens Coll. New York (United States)
Publication Date:
Sep 15, 2004
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
ETDE-DE-1546
Resource Relation:
Conference: Dioxin 2004: 24. international symposium on halogenated environmental organic pollutants and POPs, Berlin (Germany), 6-10 Sep 2004; Related Information: In: Dioxin 2004: 24. international symposium on halogenated environmental organic pollutants and POPs. Proceedings, Organohalogen Compounds v. 66, 4035 pages.
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DDT; MALARIA; AMAZON RIVER; FISHES; BIOLOGICAL ACCUMULATION; FOOD; HEALTH HAZARDS; INFANTS; MILK; BRAZIL; RISK ASSESSMENT
Sponsoring Organizations:
Bundesmin. fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)
OSTI ID:
20828091
Research Organizations:
Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz
Country of Origin:
Germany
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISBN 3-928379-30-5; TRN: DE07G1428
Availability:
Available as CD-ROM; www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/20828091-P5mLCs/; Commercial reproduction prohibited; OSTI as DE20828091
Submitting Site:
DE
Size:
page(s) 1824-1831
Announcement Date:
Jan 27, 2007

Citation Formats

Torres, J P.M., Meire, R, Azeredo, A, Malm, O, D'Amato, C, Saldanha, G, Bastos, W, Claudio, L, and Markowitz, S. Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon. Germany: N. p., 2004. Web.
Torres, J P.M., Meire, R, Azeredo, A, Malm, O, D'Amato, C, Saldanha, G, Bastos, W, Claudio, L, & Markowitz, S. Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon. Germany.
Torres, J P.M., Meire, R, Azeredo, A, Malm, O, D'Amato, C, Saldanha, G, Bastos, W, Claudio, L, and Markowitz, S. 2004. "Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon." Germany.
@misc{etde_20828091,
title = {Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon}
author = {Torres, J P.M., Meire, R, Azeredo, A, Malm, O, D'Amato, C, Saldanha, G, Bastos, W, Claudio, L, and Markowitz, S}
abstractNote = {The DDT, a term used to refer to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an organochlorine pesticide first synthesized in 1874, but its properties as insecticide were discovered only in the late 1930's by the chemist Paul Muller, who won the Nobel Prize in 1948. Since its discovery, DDT use revolutionized the control concepts against malaria and other tropical insect-borne diseases. A large-scale industrial production started in 1943 and it was used in great quantities mainly for the agricultural and forest pest control. A smaller quantity of the world production (20-30%) was used in tropical disease control. In 1946 it was established a regular system of DDT applications in Amazon houses. Its use became common in malaria vector control and other tropical diseases, like leishmaniasis. DDT began to be restricted after the discovery of its toxicity against wild animals, especially top predators and due to potential toxic effects against humans. The DDT restrictive measures in Brazil started in 19714. In 1985 DDT was prohibited for agricultural purposes, but continued to be use for Public Health Campaigns, under the responsibility of FUNASA, the Brazilian National Health Foundation. An investigation conducted by Vieira et al. detected {sigma}ODDT in soil, sediments and chicken eggs from an area seven and nine years after its last application for leishmaniasis vector control near the sprayed sites. Today DDT is recognized as one of the twelve Persistent Organic Pollutants - POPs. Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 20008 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme9 have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3}mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}DDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sigma}DDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.}
place = {Germany}
year = {2004}
month = {Sep}
}