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Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

Abstract

At the moment ionisation chambers are the detectors which are best suited to the task of nuclear reactor control by neutronic measurements. We have thought it wise to state some generalities concerning reactor dynamics, the various neutron detection methods, the working of ionisation chambers and the measurement methods used. Our contribution to reactor control techniques consists on the one hand in an attempt to make a synthesis of the factors influencing the operation of ionisation chambers, the study of these factors, and on the other hand in the development of ionisation chambers of the fission and boron types, making it possible to follow the working of a reactor from the moment it starts up until maximum power is attained. In the field of fission chambers, we have in particular improved the technique for depositing uranium oxide on aluminium and have perfected the electrolytic deposition process on other metals: stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium, kovar, tungsten and beryllium. We have developed several types of fission chambers used during the start-up of reactors: one type of medium performance now in use in French piles one high-sensitivity type one high-temperature type which has operated up to 600 deg. C. As far  More>>
Authors:
Duchene, J [1] 
  1. Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires
Publication Date:
Feb 15, 1961
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
CEA-R-2373
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: These sciences; 55 refs
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; BACKGROUND NOISE; BORON COATED ION CHAMBERS; ELECTRODEPOSITION; FISSION CHAMBERS; GAMMA RADIATION; NEUTRON FLUX; POWER REACTORS; REACTOR KINETICS; REACTOR MONITORING SYSTEMS; REACTOR START-UP; URANIUM OXIDES
OSTI ID:
20818055
Research Organizations:
CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Faculte des Sciences de l'Universite de Paris, 75 (France)
Country of Origin:
France
Language:
French
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: FR06R2373118184
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
FRN
Size:
90 pages
Announcement Date:
Dec 30, 2006

Citation Formats

Duchene, J. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965). France: N. p., 1961. Web.
Duchene, J. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965). France.
Duchene, J. 1961. "Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)." France.
@misc{etde_20818055,
title = {Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)}
author = {Duchene, J}
abstractNote = {At the moment ionisation chambers are the detectors which are best suited to the task of nuclear reactor control by neutronic measurements. We have thought it wise to state some generalities concerning reactor dynamics, the various neutron detection methods, the working of ionisation chambers and the measurement methods used. Our contribution to reactor control techniques consists on the one hand in an attempt to make a synthesis of the factors influencing the operation of ionisation chambers, the study of these factors, and on the other hand in the development of ionisation chambers of the fission and boron types, making it possible to follow the working of a reactor from the moment it starts up until maximum power is attained. In the field of fission chambers, we have in particular improved the technique for depositing uranium oxide on aluminium and have perfected the electrolytic deposition process on other metals: stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium, kovar, tungsten and beryllium. We have developed several types of fission chambers used during the start-up of reactors: one type of medium performance now in use in French piles one high-sensitivity type one high-temperature type which has operated up to 600 deg. C. As far as boron chambers are concerned, we have studied the perturbations caused to the measurement by the exposure of the chamber to high neutron flux and to a very strong {gamma} radiation. This exposure brings about a modification of the properties of the constituent materials and causes a background noise in the chamber which can seriously handicap the neutron measurements. We have shown that the compensation technique makes it possible to limit this noise and to thereby increase the range of measurement of conventional ionisation chambers intended for power measurements. Finally, we have built two types of compensation chambers used in the French reactors and have begun the study of a third type of high sensitivity for high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation classiques destinees aux mesures de puissance. Enfin, nous avons realise deux types de chambres compensees utilisees dans les piles francaises et commence l'etude d'un troisieme type, de grande sensibllite, pour les piles de grande puissance. (auteur)}
place = {France}
year = {1961}
month = {Feb}
}