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Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

Abstract

The present report summarizes the results form the projects that have carried out during the period 2002-2005. The report presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. The Ash Programme is a wide initiative including building up knowledge, work on guidelines, development work and communication. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are as secondary or recovered materials in geotechnical construction on the one hand, as nutrients in forestry on the other hand. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; A method to classify those by-products  More>>
Authors:
Bjurstroem, Henrik [1] 
  1. AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
Publication Date:
Apr 15, 2006
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
VARMEFORSK-972
Reference Number:
RN07000153; TVI: 0620
Resource Relation:
Other Information: 72 refs., 14 tabs. Tables with text in English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; ASHES; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; REVIEWS; SWEDEN; FORESTRY; NUTRIENTS; CEMENTS; RECOMMENDATIONS; SANITARY LANDFILLS; BIOFUELS
OSTI ID:
20805591
Research Organizations:
Vaermeforsk, Stockholm (Sweden)
Country of Origin:
Sweden
Language:
Swedish
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: Project Vaermeforsk-Q4-298; ISSN 1653-1248; TRN: SE0607474
Availability:
Also available from: Vaermeforsk Service AB, SE-101 53 Stockholm, Sweden or: http://www.varmeforsk.se; Commercial reproduction prohibited; OSTI as DE20805591
Submitting Site:
SWD
Size:
101 pages
Announcement Date:
Dec 20, 2006

Citation Formats

Bjurstroem, Henrik. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005. Sweden: N. p., 2006. Web.
Bjurstroem, Henrik. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005. Sweden.
Bjurstroem, Henrik. 2006. "Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005." Sweden.
@misc{etde_20805591,
title = {Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005}
author = {Bjurstroem, Henrik}
abstractNote = {The present report summarizes the results form the projects that have carried out during the period 2002-2005. The report presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. The Ash Programme is a wide initiative including building up knowledge, work on guidelines, development work and communication. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are as secondary or recovered materials in geotechnical construction on the one hand, as nutrients in forestry on the other hand. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, ca 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The large potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes ca 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for a use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of a method to assess the impact of the use of ashes in a construction on the environment, as well as the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in another type of construction. In mines, excavated ore volumes are filled with tailings stabilized with cement before the neighbouring volumes may be exploited. Fly ash may replace at least half of the cement, which also has been confirmed in pilot tests. The main thrust in the Ash Programme on landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. In two parallel alleys projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. The properties of these surfaces are now being followed up during a longer time. Landfills are today the largest consumers of ashes. The uses for ashes, e.g. as banking material or covers, and the experience gained have been reviewed. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in a sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the shape of logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide also a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain, the so-called vitalizing fertilization. In contrast to construction, where guidelines are needed, there are already guidelines, acceptance from authorities and ongoing activities. An important issue is the classification of combustion by-products according to the waste regulations. This requires a deep knowledge of the speciation of elements. This is almost impossible to attain for as complex materials as ashes. A simplified method has been developed: starting from present knowledge of the chemistry of ashes a conservative selection of compounds has been made for the elements found in an analysis. The regulations are then applied on an ash to determine whether it is or is not hazardous. To disseminate information about the properties of ashes, the data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska. This database may be reached on the Internet site of the Ash Programme, www.askprogrammet.com. At the end of 2005, data for 244 samples have been recorded.}
place = {Sweden}
year = {2006}
month = {Apr}
}