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Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications

Abstract

This paper will discuss the various methods used for emplacement and design considerations that must be taken into account when the emplacement and stemming method is selected. The step-by-step field procedure will not be discussed in this paper. The task of emplacing and stemming the nuclear explosive is common to all Plowshare experiments today. All present-day applications of a nuclear explosive for Plowshare experiments require that the detonation take place some distance below the surface of the ground. This is normally done by lowering the explosive into an emplacement hole to a desired depth and then backfilling the hole with a suitable stemming material. At first glance it scenes like a very straightforward, simple task to perform. It would appear to be a task that could become a standard procedure for all experiments; however, this is not the case. In actuality, the emplacement and stemming of a nuclear explosive must almost be a custom design. It varies with the application of the experiment, i.e., cratering or underground engineering. It also varies with the condition of the hole, the available equipment to do the job, the actual purpose of the stemming, possible postshot reentry, hydrology, geology, and future production. A very  More>>
Authors:
Cramer, J L [1] 
  1. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
May 15, 1970
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
CONF-700101(vol.2); INIS-XA-N-229
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives, Las Vegas, NV (United States), 14-16 Jan 1970; Other Information: 1 fig; Related Information: In: Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Volume 2, 935 pages.
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; BOREHOLES; CRATERING EXPLOSIONS; EXPERIMENT PLANNING; GEOLOGY; HYDROLOGY; NUCLEAR EXCAVATION; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES; PLOWSHARE PROJECT; STEMMING MATERIALS; UNDERGROUND MINING
OSTI ID:
20768813
Research Organizations:
American Nuclear Society, Hindsdale, IL (United States); United States Atomic Energy Commission (United States)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA04N0880075280
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 974-978
Announcement Date:
Sep 23, 2006

Citation Formats

Cramer, J L. Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications. IAEA: N. p., 1970. Web.
Cramer, J L. Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications. IAEA.
Cramer, J L. 1970. "Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20768813,
title = {Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications}
author = {Cramer, J L}
abstractNote = {This paper will discuss the various methods used for emplacement and design considerations that must be taken into account when the emplacement and stemming method is selected. The step-by-step field procedure will not be discussed in this paper. The task of emplacing and stemming the nuclear explosive is common to all Plowshare experiments today. All present-day applications of a nuclear explosive for Plowshare experiments require that the detonation take place some distance below the surface of the ground. This is normally done by lowering the explosive into an emplacement hole to a desired depth and then backfilling the hole with a suitable stemming material. At first glance it scenes like a very straightforward, simple task to perform. It would appear to be a task that could become a standard procedure for all experiments; however, this is not the case. In actuality, the emplacement and stemming of a nuclear explosive must almost be a custom design. It varies with the application of the experiment, i.e., cratering or underground engineering. It also varies with the condition of the hole, the available equipment to do the job, the actual purpose of the stemming, possible postshot reentry, hydrology, geology, and future production. A very important item that must always be considered is the protection of the firing and signal cables during the downhole and stemming operation. Each of these things must be considered; ignoring any one of them could jeopardize one of the objectives of the experiment or perhaps even the experiment itself. It should be emphasized that for a multiple-shot program such as would be used to develop a gas field where the geology, depths of burial etc. are the same, the emplacement and stemming operation would be standardized, as would all other parts of the program. However, for individual experiments in totally different areas, complete standardization of the emplacement and stemming is impossible.}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1970}
month = {May}
}