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Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

Abstract

Uranium processing from the pit to the fuel element rod entails metal losses at every step. These losses become more and more expensive with the elaboration of the metal. Some of the uranium must be accepted as definitely lost whilst the rest could be recovered and recycled. The high cost of these losses, whether they are recycled or not, and the fact that the higher the enrichment is the higher their costs are, make it necessary to take them into account when optimizing fuel cycles. It is therefore felt important to determine their most desirable level from an economic point of view at the various nuclear fuel processing stages. However, in France as in some other countries, fissile material production is a state concern, whilst fuel element fabrication is carried out by private enterprise. Optimization criteria and the economic value of losses are therefore different for each of the two links in the fabrication chain. One can try in spite of this to reach an optimum which would conform to public interest, without interfering with the firm's sales policy. This entails using the fact that for a given output marginal costs are equal at the optimum. One can therefore adjust  More>>
Authors:
Gaussens, J; [1]  Lasteyrie, B de; Doumerc, J [2] 
  1. Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)
  2. Compagnie pour l'Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 1965
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
CEA-R-2866
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; COST ESTIMATION; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; FABRICATION; FUEL CYCLE; LIFE-CYCLE COST; MARGINAL-COST PRICING; NUCLEAR FUELS; OPTIMIZATION
OSTI ID:
20723406
Research Organizations:
CEA, 75 - Paris (France)
Country of Origin:
France
Language:
French
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: FR05R2866035906
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
FRN
Size:
66 pages
Announcement Date:
May 13, 2006

Citation Formats

Gaussens, J, Lasteyrie, B de, and Doumerc, J. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes. France: N. p., 1965. Web.
Gaussens, J, Lasteyrie, B de, & Doumerc, J. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes. France.
Gaussens, J, Lasteyrie, B de, and Doumerc, J. 1965. "Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes." France.
@misc{etde_20723406,
title = {Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes}
author = {Gaussens, J, Lasteyrie, B de, and Doumerc, J}
abstractNote = {Uranium processing from the pit to the fuel element rod entails metal losses at every step. These losses become more and more expensive with the elaboration of the metal. Some of the uranium must be accepted as definitely lost whilst the rest could be recovered and recycled. The high cost of these losses, whether they are recycled or not, and the fact that the higher the enrichment is the higher their costs are, make it necessary to take them into account when optimizing fuel cycles. It is therefore felt important to determine their most desirable level from an economic point of view at the various nuclear fuel processing stages. However, in France as in some other countries, fissile material production is a state concern, whilst fuel element fabrication is carried out by private enterprise. Optimization criteria and the economic value of losses are therefore different for each of the two links in the fabrication chain. One can try in spite of this to reach an optimum which would conform to public interest, without interfering with the firm's sales policy. This entails using the fact that for a given output marginal costs are equal at the optimum. One can therefore adjust the level of the losses to attain this equation of marginal costs, as these are easier to obtain from the firm than a justification of the actual prices. One notices moreover that, although mainly concerned with losses, this global analysis can bring both the state and the firm to a better use of other production factors. An account is given of the theory of this economic optimization method and practical applications in the field of natural uranium-graphite moderated and CO{sub 2} cooled reactor fuel element fabrication are offered. (authors) [French] L'elaboration de l'uranium, de la mine a la cartouche d'element combustible, s'accompagne, a tous les stades, de pertes, de plus en plus onereuses, a mesure que le metal devient plus elabore. Une certaine proportion de l'uranium doit etre consideree comme definitivement perdue, alors que le reste pourrait etre recupere et recycle. Le cout eleve des pertes, recyclees ou non, d'autant plus eleve que l'uranium est plus enrichi, exige qu'il en soit tenu compte dans l'optimisation generale des cycles de combustible. Il importe donc de determiner leur niveau le plus souhaitable economiquement, aux diverses etapes d'elaboration du combustible nucleaire. Mais en France et dans d'autres pays, la production de matieres fissiles est geree par l'Etat, tandis que la fabrication de l'element combustible est effectuee par l'industrie privee. Les criteres d'optimisation et l'interet economique accorde aux pertes sont donc differents pour les deux parties de la chaine de fabrication. Pour tenter neanmoins d'atteindre un optimum conforme a l'interet collectif sans intervenir dans la politique de prix de l'entreprise, on peut utiliser la propriete des couts marginaux d'etre egaux entre eux a l'optimum, pour un volume de production donne. On peut donc ajuster le niveau des pertes pour realiser cette egalite des couts marginaux dont le calcul est plus facile a obtenir de la firme que la justification des prix eux-memes. On s'apercoit d'ailleurs que, bien qu'axee essentiellement sur les pertes, cette analyse globale peut conduire a une meilleure utilisation d'autres facteurs de production. On donne un expose theorique et des exemples pratiques de cette methode d'optimisation economique dans le cadre de la fabrication d'elements combustibles destines a des reacteurs du type: uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. (auteurs)}
place = {France}
year = {1965}
month = {Jul}
}