You need JavaScript to view this

International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances]

Abstract

Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed  More>>
Authors:
Lindell, Bo [1] 
  1. Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (Sweden)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 1986
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
INIS-XA-C-069
Resource Relation:
Conference: International round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin, Stockholm (Sweden), 26-29 Jan 1987; Related Information: In: Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers), 214 pages.
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCIDENTS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; DECONTAMINATION; IAEA AGREEMENTS; ICRP; RADIATION MONITORING; RADIATION PROTECTION; RECOMMENDATIONS; UNSCEAR
OSTI ID:
20637411
Research Organizations:
World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Robert von Ostertag-Institute, Berlin (Germany)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA04C0179080773
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
2 pages
Announcement Date:
Nov 03, 2005

Citation Formats

Lindell, Bo. International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances]. IAEA: N. p., 1986. Web.
Lindell, Bo. International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances]. IAEA.
Lindell, Bo. 1986. "International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances]." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20637411,
title = {International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances]}
author = {Lindell, Bo}
abstractNote = {Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer, provided that, in what may be a multi-stage process, additional modifying factors ('promotors') are at hand. The postulated assumption for stochastic effects is that the risk (probability of cancer) from a small dose increment is proportional to the dose increment, irrespective of previous or later radiation exposures. No dose increment can then be said to be entirely 'safe' although the risk would be very small if the dose increment is small. For normal operation of practices that cause radiation exposures, individuals are protected by dose limits recommended by ICRP. The dose limits guarantee that the radiation risk will not dominate the individual's risk situation. However, the dose limits are supplemented by the further recommendation that all radiation exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, 'economic and social factors being taken into account'. This recommendation is also referred to as the recommendation on optimizing radiation protection. Various methods for this have been used, for example differential cost/benefit analysis. For accidental situations, the ICRP dose limits do not apply. The situation of persons who are at risk of being exposed, e.g. from radioactive substances in the environment or in food-stuffs, can only be improved by remedial actions. The purpose of remedial actions is to eliminate high risks, if possible, and to reduce any radiation risk as far as reasonably achievable. An obvious requirement is that the remedial action must not put individuals in a worse situation than if the action had not been taken. It follows the dose that must be avoided by remedial action, and the dose reduction which would be reasonably achievable by the action, will depend on the type of action and the risks and other consequences of the action. It is therefore not possible to give universally applicable action levels of dose. However, for certain identified actions in described situations, action levels may be given in beforehand. In its Publication 40, the ICRP has recommended ranges of action levels for some remedial actions, including the withdrawal of contaminated food-stuffs from the market. Similar recommendations have been issued by IAEA and WHO. From recommended values of action levels for radiation dose, derived action levels for intakes (e.g. annual intakes) of various radionuclides may be calculated, provided that the relative proportions of all significant radionuclides are known. Values of such derived action levels have been published by the IAEA in its Safety Series No. 81. On these bases, national authorities, have intervened to give 'limits' or 'reference values' for activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) for some or all food-stuffs. It should be realized, however, that the actual activity intake, and hence the radiation dose and risk, depend not only on the activity concentration but also on the quantities of particular food-stuffs actually consumed. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1986}
month = {Jul}
}