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Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

Abstract

In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and  More>>
Authors:
Hill, Richard N [1] 
  1. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 1992
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
INIS-XA-N-030
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1992 international conference on risk assessment, London (United Kingdom), 5-9 Oct 1992; Other Information: PBD: 1992; Related Information: In: Risk assessment, session 1-4. International conference 1992. Part 1, 248 pages.
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AGRICULTURE; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY; CHEMICAL WASTES; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ECOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY; PESTICIDES; PUBLIC HEALTH; RESIDUES; RISK ASSESSMENT
OSTI ID:
20577152
Research Organizations:
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (United Kingdom)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA04N0317028689
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 162-165
Announcement Date:

Citation Formats

Hill, Richard N. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States. IAEA: N. p., 1992. Web.
Hill, Richard N. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States. IAEA.
Hill, Richard N. 1992. "Pesticide risk assessment in the United States." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20577152,
title = {Pesticide risk assessment in the United States}
author = {Hill, Richard N}
abstractNote = {In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological.}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1992}
month = {Jul}
}