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The influence of environment on the inelastic behavior of rocks

Abstract

The mechanical response of earth materials are demonstrably dependent upon the environment during deformation as well as the physical properties of the rock masses themselves. Among the most important of these environmental parameters are mean pressure, pore fluid pressure, temperature, strain rate, and the relative magnitude of the intermediate principal stress ({sigma}{sub 2}) compared to the maximum ({sigma}{sub 1}) and minimum ({sigma}{sub 3}) stresses. Important inherent properties of rocks include anisotropy, homogeneity, porosity, permeability, grain size, and mineral composition. Calculation of the response of rocks to a nearby nuclear detonation requires knowledge of the deviatoric stress-strain behavior as well as the resulting mechanisms of deformation: fracture or flow. For calculations beginning at times of the order of 10{sup -3} sec after detonation, that is, when peak pressures are {approx}10{sup 6} bars and lasting to {approx}10{sup 2} sec when cavity pressures have decayed to {approx}10{sup 2} bars, broad limitations may be imposed on the possible deformation environment. Here, mean pressures range from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 2} bars, pore pressures from 10{sup 6} to 1 bar, temperatures from 1500 deg. to 50 deg. C, and strain rates from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup -3} per sec; {sigma}{sub 2} may range in value  More>>
Authors:
Heard, Hugh C [1] 
  1. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
May 01, 1970
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
CONF-700101(vol.1); INIS-XA-N-228
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives, Las Vegas, NV (United States), 14-16 Jan 1970; Other Information: 24 refs, 12 figs; PBD: May 1970; Related Information: In: Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Vol. 1, 871 pages.
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; BRITTLE-DUCTILE TRANSITIONS; CALCULATION METHODS; DEFORMATION; LIMESTONE; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; OIL SHALES; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; QUARTZITES; ROCKS; SANDSTONES; STRAIN RATE; STRESS ANALYSIS
OSTI ID:
20555811
Research Organizations:
American Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, IL (United States); United States Atomic Energy Commission (United States)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA04N0747010785
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 127-141
Announcement Date:

Citation Formats

Heard, Hugh C. The influence of environment on the inelastic behavior of rocks. IAEA: N. p., 1970. Web.
Heard, Hugh C. The influence of environment on the inelastic behavior of rocks. IAEA.
Heard, Hugh C. 1970. "The influence of environment on the inelastic behavior of rocks." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20555811,
title = {The influence of environment on the inelastic behavior of rocks}
author = {Heard, Hugh C}
abstractNote = {The mechanical response of earth materials are demonstrably dependent upon the environment during deformation as well as the physical properties of the rock masses themselves. Among the most important of these environmental parameters are mean pressure, pore fluid pressure, temperature, strain rate, and the relative magnitude of the intermediate principal stress ({sigma}{sub 2}) compared to the maximum ({sigma}{sub 1}) and minimum ({sigma}{sub 3}) stresses. Important inherent properties of rocks include anisotropy, homogeneity, porosity, permeability, grain size, and mineral composition. Calculation of the response of rocks to a nearby nuclear detonation requires knowledge of the deviatoric stress-strain behavior as well as the resulting mechanisms of deformation: fracture or flow. For calculations beginning at times of the order of 10{sup -3} sec after detonation, that is, when peak pressures are {approx}10{sup 6} bars and lasting to {approx}10{sup 2} sec when cavity pressures have decayed to {approx}10{sup 2} bars, broad limitations may be imposed on the possible deformation environment. Here, mean pressures range from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 2} bars, pore pressures from 10{sup 6} to 1 bar, temperatures from 1500 deg. to 50 deg. C, and strain rates from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup -3} per sec; {sigma}{sub 2} may range in value from that of {sigma}{sub 3} on loading to that of {sigma}{sub 1} on unloading. Using present technology, it is virtually impossible to measure the mechanical behavior of rock materials under controlled conditions over much of the above range. This behavior must be largely inferred from data gathered at less extreme conditions. Quantitative data illustrating the effect of the deformation environment upon the strength and brittle-ductile behavior are presented for a suite of rocks of interest to the Plowshare program; among these are limestone, quartzite, granite, sandstone and 'oil-shale'. More limited results are also presented illustrating the effect of planar anisotropies as well as of grain size upon mechanical properties. The available data then may be used to infer the mechanical response of rocks at the more extreme conditions near a nuclear detonation. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1970}
month = {May}
}