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Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

Abstract

It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and  More>>
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 2003
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
IMES-EESS-46; LUTFD2-TFEM-03-3039
Resource Relation:
Other Information: 150 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs; PBD: 2003
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; WIND POWER; SWEDEN; ENERGY POLICY; FINANCIAL INCENTIVES; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; MARKET
OSTI ID:
20437699
Research Organizations:
Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies
Country of Origin:
Sweden
Language:
Swedish
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 1102-3651; ISBN 91-88360-65-2; TRN: SE0407052
Availability:
Also available from: http://www.miljo.lth.se/svenska/internt/publikationer_internt/pdf-filer/vindrapport%20h.sida.pdf; Available to ETDE participating countries only(see www.etde.org); commercial reproduction prohibited; OSTI as DE20437699
Submitting Site:
SWD
Size:
104 pages
Announcement Date:

Citation Formats

Aastrand, Kerstin, and Neij, Lena. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige. Sweden: N. p., 2003. Web.
Aastrand, Kerstin, & Neij, Lena. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige. Sweden.
Aastrand, Kerstin, and Neij, Lena. 2003. "Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige." Sweden.
@misc{etde_20437699,
title = {Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige}
author = {Aastrand, Kerstin, and Neij, Lena}
abstractNote = {It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and development (R and D), demonstration (D) and investment and production subsidies. In order to study development of and changes in the socio-technological-system, we identify indicators that describe the wind power development. The indicators show: (i) changes in technology development; (ii) cost development due to technology and market development; (iii) development of actors, institutions and organisations and changes in their commitment to wind power development. From this analysis of the changes in the wind power system over time, the impact of the policy instruments on the development of the technology and market of wind power is assessed. Lastly, we discuss the tardiness in market development and identify possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent in Sweden. The study of the development of the Swedish wind power system shows how public energy policy and the impact of policy instruments shaped turbine technology and market development. The governmental interventions made during the 1970s and 1980s were limited to RD and D measures. These steered both the choice of technology; i.e. turbine development with a focus on large (over 1 MW), two-bladed, flexible turbines, and the early market development in Sweden, with a limited number of actors, institutions and organizations. The number of wind turbines manufactured in Sweden is low and by 2000 there had not been a commercial breakthrough for the technology developed. The R and D-programmes have, however, generated knowledge and increased competence regarding wind power technology. The introduction of investment and production subsidies in the early 1990s changed the focus from technology development to a more general focus on market development and the production of wind power. The change in policy increased the diversity of actors involved in the development process and a market for commercially available, three-bladed, Danish turbines grew in Sweden. The investment and production subsidies have increased the installation rate in Sweden, which in turn has secured further RD and D-projects, including research areas such as acceptance, attitudes, noise and other environmental impacts. Compared to other countries the wind power development has been slow in Sweden. In 2000, 25 years of policy support to technology and market development of wind power had resulted in 240 MW installed capacity and a wind power production of 440 GWh/year, which contributed with 0,3% of the total electricity production in Sweden. The report concludes that early inflexible steering of technology and market development, together with a lack of comprehensive, long-term strategy, insufficient continuity in policy interventions and weak combinations of policy programmes and measures have impeded the technology and market development of wind power in Sweden.}
place = {Sweden}
year = {2003}
month = {Jul}
}