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Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control

Conference:

Abstract

The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to  More>>
Authors:
Vohra, F C [1] 
  1. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
Mar 01, 1970
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
STI/DOC-10/102
Resource Relation:
Conference: FAO/IAEA research co-ordination meeting on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding, Oiso (Japan), 12-14 Aug 1968; Other Information: Short communication; 6 refs; PBD: Mar 1970; Related Information: In: Rice breeding with induced mutations II. Report of an FAO/IAEA research co-ordination meeting, Technical reports seriesno. 102, 129 pages.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; DISEASE RESISTANCE; INSECTICIDES; LARVAE; PEST CONTROL; PLANT BREEDING; PLANT GROWTH; PRODUCTIVITY; RADIATION INDUCED MUTANTS; RADIOSENSITIVITY; RICE; RICE STEM BORERS
OSTI ID:
20386482
Research Organizations:
Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA0302333066410
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 111-113
Announcement Date:

Conference:

Citation Formats

Vohra, F C. Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control. IAEA: N. p., 1970. Web.
Vohra, F C. Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control. IAEA.
Vohra, F C. 1970. "Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20386482,
title = {Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control}
author = {Vohra, F C}
abstractNote = {The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to save the crop from damage by stem borers. The development of a variety of rice resistant to stem borers will provide an effective control operative at all levels of insect population without additional cost and inconvenience to the farmer. The research project: To achieve this objective a research project has recently been started as a co-operative venture at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This project involves (a) Detailed ecological studies of boxers in different varieties of rice grown commonly in the various parts of the country; (b) A study of parasites of borers for possible biological control; and (c) Production of rice varieties resistant to stem borers through induction of mutations and hybridization with locally used types. Various factors pertaining to the morphology, physiology and chemical nature of the rice plant are possibly responsible for the stem borer resistance. Carefully planned experiments have to evaluate their contribution to resistance before successful breeding programs can be undertaken. A wild species of rice in Malaya, Oryza ridleyi Hook. is said to be highly resistant. Similarly, several cultivated varieties are claimed to offer considerable resistance, but none of them can be recommended for commercial planting because of unsatisfactory yield, grain size and appearance, and nutrient and cooking value. Therefore, in order to develop a valuable resistant variety one would have to improve all the above characteristics. Mutation breeding with a high standard variety maybe more promising than a long-term cross-breeding program and should, in the opinion of the author, also be attempted in other countries. Through the co-operation of the authorities of the Serdang Agriculture College, the use of their paddy fields for observation and experimentation has been secured. Preliminary work to assess the type of borer and infestation in the most common rice-varieties namely Mahsuri, Malinja and Ria is already in progress. This is essential because most of the previous work on stem borers in Malaya has been carried out on older varieties which are not much favoured either by the government or by the people. All the four species mentioned earlier have been found attacking the new varieties at Serdang. At present, the data are too meagre to warrant any definite conclusions, but the following possibilities are indicated by the field observation. (a) Some species of borers are more common in one locality than other species, (b) In a particular locality there seems to be a quantitative host variety preference, (c) There is no indication of a relationship between the borer infestation and the habit of the plants, (d) Some varieties are possibly more vulnerable during younger stages. (e) There is an indication of one species of borer being more abundant during early stages of the plant and another one during later stages, (f) There are many borers per tiller during the early stages of paddy plants, but only one or two at later ones. These observations indicate some possibilities for resistance breeding which will soon be tested on new strains in the field and in the laboratory. For improving screening techniques on large plant populations, experiments are being carried out to improve methods of mass breeding of stem borer larvae in the laboratory. Besides this, the collection of parasites of stem borers is being attempted.}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1970}
month = {Mar}
}