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Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China

Abstract

Full text: 40 varieties, early maturing, high yielding and/or disease resistant have been developed between 1963 and 1979 in cereals, industrial crops and vegetables. They have been cultivated on 530.000 ha. 1. The following varieties were released after 1979: Soybean: 'Heilong No. 26' released in 1980 was bred through crossing mutant 'Har63-2294' with 'Xiaojinhuang'. This variety possesses high yield, drought tolerance, cold tolerance during juvenile phase, disease resistance and good quality. The breeders have won a state prize. This variety yields 3-3.5 t/ha, and was cultivated so far on more than 270.000 ha. Sorghum: 'Longfuliang No. 1' released in 1979, was selected in M{sub 3} of irradiated variety 'Xinliang No. 7'. This variety possesses 15 days earlier maturity, dwarf culm (90-100 cm), high yield and disease resistance. It is suitable for machine harvest, yields 5.2-8 t/ha and was cultivated so far on more than 20.000 ha. Spring wheat: 'Longfumei No. 1' released in 1983, derived from thermal neutron irradiated F{sub 1} seeds of the cross 'Xin No. 3' x 'Lio No. 8'. This variety possesses early maturity, high yield, good quality (protein 18.2%, lysine 0.40%) and disease resistance. It is suitable for multiple cropping: After harvest, chinese cabbage and radish  More>>
Authors:
Guangzu, Sun [1] 
  1. Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China)
Publication Date:
Jan 01, 1989
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
INIS-XA-478
Resource Relation:
Other Information: 4 refs; PBD: Jan 1989; Related Information: In: Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33, 36 pages.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CEREALS; CHINA; CROPS; DISEASE RESISTANCE; PLANT BREEDING; PRODUCTIVITY; RADIATION INDUCED MUTANTS; VEGETABLES
OSTI ID:
20241762
Research Organizations:
Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 1011-260X; TRN: XA0201018015345
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 4-6
Announcement Date:

Citation Formats

Guangzu, Sun. Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China. IAEA: N. p., 1989. Web.
Guangzu, Sun. Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China. IAEA.
Guangzu, Sun. 1989. "Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20241762,
title = {Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China}
author = {Guangzu, Sun}
abstractNote = {Full text: 40 varieties, early maturing, high yielding and/or disease resistant have been developed between 1963 and 1979 in cereals, industrial crops and vegetables. They have been cultivated on 530.000 ha. 1. The following varieties were released after 1979: Soybean: 'Heilong No. 26' released in 1980 was bred through crossing mutant 'Har63-2294' with 'Xiaojinhuang'. This variety possesses high yield, drought tolerance, cold tolerance during juvenile phase, disease resistance and good quality. The breeders have won a state prize. This variety yields 3-3.5 t/ha, and was cultivated so far on more than 270.000 ha. Sorghum: 'Longfuliang No. 1' released in 1979, was selected in M{sub 3} of irradiated variety 'Xinliang No. 7'. This variety possesses 15 days earlier maturity, dwarf culm (90-100 cm), high yield and disease resistance. It is suitable for machine harvest, yields 5.2-8 t/ha and was cultivated so far on more than 20.000 ha. Spring wheat: 'Longfumei No. 1' released in 1983, derived from thermal neutron irradiated F{sub 1} seeds of the cross 'Xin No. 3' x 'Lio No. 8'. This variety possesses early maturity, high yield, good quality (protein 18.2%, lysine 0.40%) and disease resistance. It is suitable for multiple cropping: After harvest, chinese cabbage and radish can still be planted. It yields 3-4.5 t/ha and was cultivated so far on more than 13.000 ha. Maize: 'Longfuju No. 1' released in 1983 is a single-cross hybrid. One parent, the inbred line 'fu746', was developed from irradiated material. This hybrid variety possesses early maturity, high yield, good quality (protein 12.0%, lysine 0.32%), leaf blight resistance. It yields about 7.5 t/ha (occasionally up to 10 t/ha) and was cultivated so far on more than 15.000 ha. Chinese cabbage: 'Beicai No. 9' released in 1979, has been bred from irradiated F{sub 2} seeds of the cross 'Ke No. 2' x 'Feichenghuaxin'. This variety possesses disease resistance, early maturity, a better cabbage head and storage tolerance. It yields about 45 t/ha (sometime 105 t/ha) and was cultivated so far on 13.000 ha. Fibre flax: 'Heiyi No. 4' released in 1979, was bred by crossing the induced mutant {gamma}-67-1-681 with the line 6409-640. This variety possesses drought and salt tolerance, lodging resistance, high yield and good fibre quality. The fibre yield was 0.75 t/ha on light-salty soil, the highest yield 1.22 t/ha. The cultivated area so far amounts to 20.000 ha. These mutant cultivars created an additional farmers income estimated at US$ 55,000,000. 2. The following mutant lines proved to be very valuable germplasm for cross breeding: (a) early maturity - Soybean mutant Har 75-6222 requires only 80 days to maturity. It is 32 days earlier than the parent. Sorghum mutant Lifu 119-3 is 20 days earlier than the parent. Maize mutant Longfu 1747 is 15 days earlier than the parent. (b) high yield - Soybean mutant Har 77-7594 yielded 4.45 t/ha, 48% more than the control. The hybrid sorghum 11A x fuxin 9-1 (the male parent is a radiation induced mutant) yielded 9.5 t/ha, 30% more than the control. The mutant of wheat Longfu 80-7006 yielded 5.2 t/ha, 40% more than the control. (c) disease resistance - Wheat mutant Longfu 5009 resists root rot. Millet mutant Nan 72-4 resists mildew. Maize mutant Longfu 508 resists leaf blight. Maize mutant Longfu 6227 resists head smut. The mutant of chinese cabbage 79-21-2 resists downy mildew. (d) good quality - The oil content of several soybean mutants is 1-2% higher than the parents and ranges from 23.4% to 46.4%. The sugar content of the muskmelon mutant 407 is 10% higher than the parent. The fibre ratio of flax mutant {gamma}-7015-4 was 22.8%, about 5% higher than the parent. (e) tolerance to adverse environment - The soybean mutant Longfu 73-8955 possesses salt tolerance. The yield was 13.8% more than the control on salty soil. The soybean variety Heilong No. 16 has good shade tolerance. The leaves have more stomata, the grana are bigger. The mutant of fibre flax {gamma}-67-681 possesses more tolerance to salt. (f) dwarf type - The maize mutant 7147 has a short culm of only 150 cm. (g) productive plant architecture - The mutants of maize 8005 and 8007 possess upward leaves and no ligula. 3. Irradiation is also used in connection with distant hybridization. Seeds from off-springs of crossing triticale with common wheat were treated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays or neutrons. By means of induced translocation, some chromosome fragments or genes from genome of rye were introduced into the ABD genome of wheat. Translocation lines with good economic value were selected, such as Harshi 82-14, Harshi 82-1-1, Harshi 82-2-23-1 and Longfu 82nen389. These lines possess long spikes, multiple spikelets, drought tolerance, stem rust and leaf rust resistance, mildew resistance and high yield. Two of them already joined regional tests in Heilongjiang province. (author) (abstract truncated)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1989}
month = {Jan}
}