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The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

Abstract

Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most  More>>
Authors:
Gomez Riera, Pablo [1] 
  1. INTA La Consulta, Mendoza (Argentina)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 2001
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
INIS-XA-439
Reference Number:
EDB-01:092533
Resource Relation:
Conference: Scientific forum on serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development, Vienna (Austria), 18-19 Sep 2001; Other Information: 3 tabs; PBD: 2001; Related Information: In: Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts, 41 pages.
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AGRICULTURE; CERATITIS CAPITATA; COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS; FRUITS; PEST CONTROL; PRODUCTIVITY; STERILE INSECT RELEASE; STERILE MALE TECHNIQUE
OSTI ID:
20198266
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA0103077047929
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form; Also available on-line: http://www.iaea.org/worldatom/About/Policy/GC/GC45/SciProg/ScientificForum_2001.pdf
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 16-20
Announcement Date:

Citation Formats

Gomez Riera, Pablo. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly. IAEA: N. p., 2001. Web.
Gomez Riera, Pablo. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly. IAEA.
Gomez Riera, Pablo. 2001. "The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly." IAEA.
@misc{etde_20198266,
title = {The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly}
author = {Gomez Riera, Pablo}
abstractNote = {Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective.}
place = {IAEA}
year = {2001}
month = {Jul}
}