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Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

Thesis/Dissertation:

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ({sup 3}H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC{sub 50}  More>>
Authors:
Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed [1] 
  1. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)
Publication Date:
Mar 01, 1998
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
INIS-SD-153
Reference Number:
EDB-01:037079
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Thesis (Ph.D.); 164 refs. , 23 tabs. , 16 figs; PBD: Mar 1998
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CHEMOTHERAPY; CHROMATOGRAPHY; DISEASES; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MALARIA; MEDICINAL PLANTS; NMR SPECTRA; NUMERICAL DATA; SPECTROSCOPY; SUDAN
OSTI ID:
20151974
Research Organizations:
University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)
Country of Origin:
Sudan
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: SD0100011015065
Availability:
Available from the National Health Laboratory, Khartoum (SD)
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
114 pages
Announcement Date:

Thesis/Dissertation:

Citation Formats

Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis. Sudan: N. p., 1998. Web.
Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis. Sudan.
Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed. 1998. "Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis." Sudan.
@misc{etde_20151974,
title = {Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis}
author = {Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed}
abstractNote = {The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ({sup 3}H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC{sub 50} values >100 {mu} g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2 strains (IC{sub 50} equal 0.5 and 1.5 {mu} g/ml, respectively). Phytochemical analysis revealed that the most active fractions contained terpenoids and tannins but were devoid from alkaloids and saponins. Liquid-liquid partition of M.senegalensis showed that the antimalarial activity was detected in the stem and root bark fraction of dichloromethane or chloroform (IC{sub 50} value=2.5 {mu} g/ml). Bioassay guided fractionation of chloroform extract by column chromatography revealed that band 2 contained the highest antimalarial activity against P.falciparum strain 3D7 (IC{sub 50} value=5 {mu} g/ml). As a result of continuos purification of the bioactive fraction using a number of reverse phase medium-pressure column chromatographic analysis an orange amorphous compound was isolated and M/1.M/1 exhibited an antimalarial activity against Dd2 with (IC{sub 50} value=0.5 {mu} g/ml). Its effect on lymphocyte proliferation was detected at (IC{sub 50} =6.8 {+-} 0.8/mI). The UV violet spectrum was indicative of a peri-hydroxy-ortho-naphthoquinone partial structure. The spectrum had two prominent absorption bandsat 425 and 255 nm, with a shoulder at 335-340. IR spectrum showed bands for chelated hydroxyl (3370cm{sup -1}), ester carbonyl (1735 cm{sup -1}) and the conjugated of the quinonemethide system (1600 cm{sup -1}). {sup 1}H-nmr spectrum was characterized by the presence of two main groups of resonances,one in the olefinic/aromatic region and the other in the aliphatic region. The spectrum also revealed resonances of a carbomethoxy and vinyl methyl groups. The presence of six methyl signals (3H each) and one acetoxy in the proton spectrum was indicative of a pentacyclic triterpene of a friedelane type. The aromatic region showed a very distinctive pattern attributable to a quinonoid moiety. H-1 has a long range coupling to H-6 and appeared as a double (J= 1.4 Hz). H-6 couple to H-7 (J= 7.1 Hz) and to H-1, producing a double doublet.The vicinal coupling between H-6 and H-7 resulted in another doublet (J=7.1 Hz) associated with the later proton. {sup 13}C-NMR spectrum revealed the presence of 30 carbons.The DEPT-spectrum exhibited seven methylenes which allowed the following assignments: 33.6 ppm (C-11), 29.7 ppm (C-15),39.4 ppm (C-16),30.9 ppm (C-19), 29.9 (C-21) and 34.8 ppm (C-22). The {sup 13}C NMR spectral data with complete assignment im the mass spectrum the molecular weight of 464, corresponding to the formula C{sub 30}H{sub 40}O{sub 4}. and M/1 characterized as triterpene Pristimerin.}
place = {Sudan}
year = {1998}
month = {Mar}
}