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Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

Abstract

Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage  More>>
Authors:
Marques, Marcia [1] 
  1. Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology
Publication Date:
Nov 01, 2000
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
STEM-AVF-00-4; KTH-KET-R-123
Reference Number:
EDB-01:052612
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Thesis (TeknD); 164 refs, 21 figs, 7 tabs; PBD: Nov 2000
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; WASTE STORAGE; WASTE DISPOSAL; SOLID WASTES; WATER POLLUTION; GROUND WATER; LEACHING; RUNOFF; SANITARY LANDFILLS; SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION; WATER QUALITY
OSTI ID:
20138105
Research Organizations:
Swedish National Energy Administration, Eskilstuna (Sweden)
Country of Origin:
Sweden
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: Project STEM-P3904; TRN: SE0107092
Availability:
Also available from: Studsvik Library, SE-611 82 Nykoeping, Sweden (SEK 145); Available to ETDE participating countries only(see www.etde.org); commercial reproduction prohibited; OSTI as DE20138105
Submitting Site:
SWD
Size:
99 pages
Announcement Date:
Jun 25, 2001

Citation Formats

Marques, Marcia. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal. Sweden: N. p., 2000. Web.
Marques, Marcia. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal. Sweden.
Marques, Marcia. 2000. "Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal." Sweden.
@misc{etde_20138105,
title = {Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal}
author = {Marques, Marcia}
abstractNote = {Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at special waste cells led to faster production of greater amounts of discharge, in response to infiltration (already during operation), than that observed in MSW cells. This feature must be considered when designing on-site leachate treatment systems for special/hazardous waste landfills. (3) Stormwater runoff and pollutant transport: The intensification of waste handling practices exposed to rainfall at waste management parks in the new scenario led to an investigation of about 22 constituents of stormwater runoff and pollutant transport from different areas/activities and roads within the Spillepeng site. The concentration values for some parameters in some areas and roads exceeded the concentrations found in leachate from covered landfill. Concerning chemical oxygen demand and nutrients, the stormwater from Spillepeng showed a higher range of median concentration values in the stormwater than is typical of ranges for roadways, and residential and industrial areas in Sweden. The reverse occurred for heavy metals, excluding copper. (4) Groundwater monitoring programmes: In particular, the adequacy of groundwater monitoring programmes at landfill sites, was investigated. Significant differences between up- and down-gradient wells and trends not visualized by direct inspection of time series data were detected with statistical analyses. The non-parametric ranksum test was more powerful and robust than the t-test in detecting differences between up- and down-gradient paired monitoring wells. The seasonal Kendall test was more powerful than the Mann-Kendall test to detect trends for individual constituents. Non-parametric slope estimators and the Winter's Method were used to forecast the time needed to reach the EU mandatory limits for nitrate and ammonia in potable water. However, indications of aquifer heterogeneity suggest that these trends may reflect local effects, rather than a real improvement in, or degradation of, the groundwater quality. Nevertheless, the inclusion of statistical procedures in landfill monitoring programmes is suggested, as an additional useful tool.}
place = {Sweden}
year = {2000}
month = {Nov}
}