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The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

Abstract

The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the  More>>
Authors:
Aquilonius, Karin [1] 
  1. ed.; Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)
Publication Date:
Dec 15, 2010
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
SKB-TR-10-03
Resource Relation:
Other Information: 340 refs., figs., tabs.
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL; BIOSPHERE; RADIOISOTOPES; AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS; CARBON; BIOMASS
OSTI ID:
1030186
Research Organizations:
Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)
Country of Origin:
Sweden
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 1404-0344; TRN: SE1108261
Availability:
Also available from: http://www.skb.se/upload/publications/pdf/TR-10-03webb.pdf; OSTI as DE01030186
Submitting Site:
SWDN
Size:
495 pages
Announcement Date:
Dec 02, 2011

Citation Formats

Aquilonius, Karin. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere. Sweden: N. p., 2010. Web.
Aquilonius, Karin. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere. Sweden.
Aquilonius, Karin. 2010. "The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere." Sweden.
@misc{etde_1030186,
title = {The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere}
author = {Aquilonius, Karin}
abstractNote = {The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the mean for the Baltic Sea and slightly lower in Laxemar-Simpevarp. The sea level at Forsmark has since 2003 fluctuated between 0.6 m below and 1.3 m above the mean level, and the corresponding values for Laxemar-Simpevarp are 0.5 and 0.7 m. Due to the gentler slope of the coastline, the sea level fluctuations have a more marked effect in Forsmark, than in the Laxemar-Simpevarp landscape, exhibiting a steeper slope. In Forsmark the macrophyte vegetation in the photic zone is dominated by red algae and brown filamentous algae. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, the red algae community covers the largest area. The benthic biomass at the bottom sampling sites in Forsmark has been dominated by the Baltic mussel. In Laxemar-Simpevarp the sessile macro fauna attached to hard substrates is completely dominated by the blue mussel in terms of both biomass and abundance. Test fishing in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp show similar development as in other nearby coastal areas and herring and sprat are the dominant species in offshore areas at both sites. In the inner bays at the sites, perch and pike are the most frequent species. The biomass in Forsmark is dominated by the primary producers and is focused along the shoreline of the area. On average, the marine area in Forsmark shows a positive Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), although most of the area is heterotrophic. The coastal shallow basins tend to be autotrophic, whereas the more offshore basins are heterothropic. The largest carbon pool in all basins in Forsmark is the abiotic pools (i.e. sediment, DIC and DOC) followed by the macrophytes. The major carbon flux in the ecosystem is the advective flux caused by the movement of sea water. All biotic fluxes are small in comparison with the advective flux. The largest biotic flux is fixation of carbon by primary producers. On average 4% of the initially consumed carbon in the marine ecosystem food web is transferred to the top predators. For nitrogen, phosphorus and thorium, the major pool in the ecosystem is the sediment. For uranium the sediment pool and the dissolved pool are almost equally large, dominant pool for iodine is the dissolved phase. In Laxemar-Simpevarp the mean biomass is considerable higher than in Forsmark. A major difference between the sites is the high abundances of the blue mussels in the exposed basins with extensive hard-bottoms. The annual mean NEP in the whole marine area in Laxemar-Simpevarp is negative i.e. more carbon is released to the atmosphere than is fixed in biomass. However, not all basins are heterothropic, coastal basins with high macrophyte biomasses are generally autothropic. The largest carbon pool in the area is the DIC-pool followed by the sediment pool and the filter feeders. Advective flux generates the largest carbon flux in the ecosystem followed by the biotic flux; consumption by filter feeders. Runoff, diffusion, burial and precipitation are generally small fluxes in the area.}
place = {Sweden}
year = {2010}
month = {Dec}
}