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Studies on infrared drying of paper, use of integrating spheres in FTIR measurements, and heat and mass transfer inside paper

Thesis/Dissertation:

Abstract

The effect of various factors on the efficiency of infrared dryers has been studied by modelling and simulation of radiative heat transfer in these dryers. Generally, 20-35 % of the radiation from electrical IR dryers becomes absorbed by the web, whereas in the case of a gas-fired dryer 30-50 % of the energy becomes absorbed. The efficiency is strongly dependent on the dryer design, power, geometry, cleanness, and the material to be dried. Ways to improve the efficiency of installed dryers are proposed and tested. The escape of radiation from the system can be reduced, the optical properties of the surfaces can be improved, the amount of cooling can be reduced in low power circumstances, and the way of installation can be changed. A very promising method is to install the dryer far from the web and attach side flanges of high emissivity beside the dryer. The spectral properties of papers and dryer materials are studied with an FTIR spectrometer using integrating sphere techniques. The heat and mass transfer processes inside the paper during drying has been studied. The drying model was applied to the simulation of the wetting experiments. The approximate magnitude for the permeability of liquid water inside  More>>
Authors:
Publication Date:
Dec 31, 1993
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
TKK-KO/ET-59
Reference Number:
SCA: 320303; PA: FI-94:003169; EDB-94:075311; NTS-94:016842; ERA-19:018985; SN: 94001195781
Resource Relation:
Other Information: DN: KTM-RAINA Research Programme; TH: Thesis (D. Tech.); PBD: 1993
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; PAPER INDUSTRY; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; DRYERS; INFRARED RADIATION; HEAT TRANSFER; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETERS; 320303; EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES
OSTI ID:
10149611
Research Organizations:
Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Inst. of Energy Engineering
Country of Origin:
Finland
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ON: DE94763303; ISBN 951-22-1743-0; TRN: FI9403169
Availability:
OSTI; NTIS
Submitting Site:
FI
Size:
285 p.
Announcement Date:
Jul 05, 2005

Thesis/Dissertation:

Citation Formats

Ojala, K. Studies on infrared drying of paper, use of integrating spheres in FTIR measurements, and heat and mass transfer inside paper. Finland: N. p., 1993. Web.
Ojala, K. Studies on infrared drying of paper, use of integrating spheres in FTIR measurements, and heat and mass transfer inside paper. Finland.
Ojala, K. 1993. "Studies on infrared drying of paper, use of integrating spheres in FTIR measurements, and heat and mass transfer inside paper." Finland.
@misc{etde_10149611,
title = {Studies on infrared drying of paper, use of integrating spheres in FTIR measurements, and heat and mass transfer inside paper}
author = {Ojala, K}
abstractNote = {The effect of various factors on the efficiency of infrared dryers has been studied by modelling and simulation of radiative heat transfer in these dryers. Generally, 20-35 % of the radiation from electrical IR dryers becomes absorbed by the web, whereas in the case of a gas-fired dryer 30-50 % of the energy becomes absorbed. The efficiency is strongly dependent on the dryer design, power, geometry, cleanness, and the material to be dried. Ways to improve the efficiency of installed dryers are proposed and tested. The escape of radiation from the system can be reduced, the optical properties of the surfaces can be improved, the amount of cooling can be reduced in low power circumstances, and the way of installation can be changed. A very promising method is to install the dryer far from the web and attach side flanges of high emissivity beside the dryer. The spectral properties of papers and dryer materials are studied with an FTIR spectrometer using integrating sphere techniques. The heat and mass transfer processes inside the paper during drying has been studied. The drying model was applied to the simulation of the wetting experiments. The approximate magnitude for the permeability of liquid water inside the web was determined by adapting the liquid movement to these results. Applying this enhanced model, the flows of liquid water and vapor inside paper have been studied during the drying process on a hot cylinder}
place = {Finland}
year = {1993}
month = {Dec}
}