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The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy; Zur energie- und umweltpolitischen Bedeutung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

Technical Report:

Abstract

In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO{sub 2}-emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared  More>>
Authors:
Publication Date:
Mar 01, 1993
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
KFK-5126
Reference Number:
SCA: 290800; 320603; PA: DEN-94:0F0760; EDB-94:024428; ERA-19:006805; NTS-94:015658; SN: 94001136207
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Mar 1993
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COGENERATION; ENVIRONMENT; CARBON DIOXIDE; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; NUCLEAR ENERGY; POWER GENERATION; EFFICIENCY; DISTRICT HEATING; ENERGY BALANCE; DIAGRAMS; WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION; SPACE HEATING; 290800; 320603; HEAT UTILIZATION; PUBLIC UTILITIES
OSTI ID:
10119869
Research Organizations:
Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Abt. fuer Angewandte Systemanalyse
Country of Origin:
Germany
Language:
German
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: ISSN 0303-4003; Other: ON: DE94734101; TRN: DE94F0760
Availability:
OSTI; NTIS (US Sales Only); INIS
Submitting Site:
DEN
Size:
103 p.
Announcement Date:
Jun 30, 2005

Technical Report:

Citation Formats

Conrad, F. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy; Zur energie- und umweltpolitischen Bedeutung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Germany: N. p., 1993. Web.
Conrad, F. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy; Zur energie- und umweltpolitischen Bedeutung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Germany.
Conrad, F. 1993. "The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy; Zur energie- und umweltpolitischen Bedeutung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung." Germany.
@misc{etde_10119869,
title = {The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy; Zur energie- und umweltpolitischen Bedeutung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung}
author = {Conrad, F}
abstractNote = {In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO{sub 2}-emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO{sub 2}-advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO{sub 2}-characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO{sub 2}-advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Energie- und Umweltpolitik gilt die Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung (KWK) als besonders energiesparende und somit umweltschonende Energietechnik. Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt, dass diese Einschaetzung energiewirtschaftlich und energietechnisch nur bedingt berechtigt ist. Die realisierbare Energieeinsparung weist eine grosse Bandbreite auf, in Abhaengigkeit von den technischen Parametern der Koppel-Anlagen, den konkreten Einsatzbedingungen und den Eigenschaften der zum Vergleich herangezogenen Einzelanlagen. Diesbezuegliche Ueberschaetzungen haengen auch mit der Gepflogenheit zusammen, den energetischen KWK-Vorteil vollstaendig der Fernwaerme gutzuschreiben. Wird dieser Vorteil auf beide Koppelprodukte aufgeteilt, so ermoeglicht der mit ueber 80% Wirkungsgrad erzeugte Koppelstrom eine besonders effiziente Raumbeheizung. Die zeitgleiche Verwertung der Koppelprodukte fuer den gleichen Zweck koennte der KWK mehr Ausbreitungschancen eroeffnen, als es die energiewirtschaftlich problematische Einspeisung des Koppelstroms waehrend der Heizperiode zur allgemeinen Verwendung erlaubt. Der zweite Schwerpunkt des Berichts liegt auf der CO{sub 2}-Vermeidung mittels KWK. Koppelanlagen auf Erdgasbasis sind klimapolitisch sehr guenstig, besonders wenn man mit Stromerzeugung aus alten Kohlekraftwerken und mit alten Oelkesseln vergleicht. In der Bundesrepublik stellt allerdings Steinkohle und nicht Erdgas den wichtigsten HKW-Brennstoff dar, was deren CO{sub 2}-Vorteil stark verringert. Bezieht man GuD-Kraftwerke und Gas-Brennwertkessel in den Vergleich ein, so sind HKW klimapolitisch der Kombination fortschrittlicher Einzelanlagen unterlegen. Es zeigt sich ferner, dass der spezifische CO{sub 2}-Vorteil des Erdgases in modernen Einzelanlagen besser genutzt werden kann als in KWK-Anlagen. (orig.)}
place = {Germany}
year = {1993}
month = {Mar}
}