The present report contains an assessment of the need for desalination, information on the most promising desalination processes and energy sources, as well as on nuclear reactor systems proposed by potential suppliers worldwide. The main part of the report is devoted to evaluating the economic viability of seawater desalination by using nuclear energy, in comparison with fossil fuels. This evaluation encompasses a broad range of both nuclear and fossil plant sizes and technologies, and combinations with desalination processes. Finally, relevant safety and institutional aspects are briefly discussed. 27 refs, figs and tabs.