Recently a share of petroleum in the total energy supply has been in an upward trend in Germany. Crude oil imports in 1992 were 98.9 million tons. The largest crude oil exporter to Germany is CIS, followed by UK, Norway and Libya. Since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, confidence in the nuclear power generation has been lowering in Germany. Discussion, therefore, has been arisen that nuclear power should be given up and strenuous efforts should be exerted to develop petroleum substitution energy mostly like renewable energy. The German government, however, shows a negative attitude toward supporting introduction of renewable energy to the market, basically considering that renewable energy has not been quantitatively sufficient to play a role in energy supply, nor its economical efficiency has been improved so much that the introduction of renewable energy can be promoted with subsidies of approximately 50%. Technological development for petroleum substitution energy is conducted by the Research and Technology Ministry such as a large-scale demonstrative project and transfer of technology results. 2 figs., 7 tabs.