A critical review of medical sterilization methods commercially used has been done. On this base scientific, technical and production aspects of radiation sterilization technology have been discussed. Especially the process control, dosimetric methods used and microbiological problems were described. All legal aspects, Polish and international regulations and licensing procedures for different kinds of medical materials have been also shown. The development of radiation sterilization in Poland in respect to dressings, tissue transplants, cosmetics, tissue transplants, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, packing materials as well as other radiation technologies has been presented.